Regioselective synthesis of novel ring A-fused arylpyrazoles of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was carried out in two steps under facile reaction conditions. Aldol condensation of DHT with acetaldehyde afforded a 2-ethylidene derivative regio- and stereo-selectively, which was reacted with different arylhydrazines in the presence of iodine via microwave-assisted oxidative cyclization reactions. The 17-keto analogs of steroidal pyrazoles were also synthesized by simple oxidation in order to enlarge the compound library available for pharmacological studies and to obtain structure-activity relationship. The antiproliferative activities of the structurally related heteroaromatic compounds were tested in vitro on human cervical and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and on two androgen-independent malignant prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3 and DU 145). Based on primary cytotoxicity screens and IC 50 assessment, a structure-function relationship was identified, as derivatives carrying a hydroxyl group on C-17 exhibit stronger activity compared to the 17-one counterparts. Cancer cell selectivity of the derivatives was also determined using non-cancerous MRC-5 cells. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effects of some selected derivatives were verified on androgen therapy refractive p53-deficient PC-3 cells. The present study concludes that novel DHT-derived arylpyrazoles exert cancer cell specific antiproliferative activity and activate apoptosis in PC-3 cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry