Analysis of the influence of the gas pressure during the deposition of electrochromic WO3 films by reactive r.f. sputtering of W and WO3 target

E. Masetti, M. L. Grilli, G. Dautzenberg, G. Macrelli, M. Adamik

Research output: Article

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tungsten trioxide is the most accepted material for electrochromic devices. In the work thin films of WO3 were deposited by reactive r.f. sputtering of both metallic (W) and ceramic (WO3) targets to study the correlation between the electrochromic properties and the structures of the films. Samples were grown at different pressures of Ar + O2 in order that the energy regimes of the sputtered particles on the condensing surface could be set either below or above the thermalisation diffusion limit. Lithium ions were intercalated in the films in an aprotic electrolyte and the colouring/bleaching behaviour as a function of the intercalated amount of lithium was detected in the 1st and 10th cycle. From these measurements, the electrochromic properties of the films were worked out. The optical and morphological characteristics were analysed respectively, by spectrophotometric and X-TEM measurements. The amount of water present in the films, detected by IR spectroscopy, turned out to be well correlated to the film morphology and also to the porosity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-269
Number of pages11
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume56
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1999

Fingerprint

Reactive sputtering
Gases
Lithium
Electrochromic devices
Coloring
Bleaching
Electrolytes
Tungsten
Infrared spectroscopy
Porosity
Ions
Transmission electron microscopy
Thin films
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

@article{699886b44d7a4081895667511e416fb5,
title = "Analysis of the influence of the gas pressure during the deposition of electrochromic WO3 films by reactive r.f. sputtering of W and WO3 target",
abstract = "Tungsten trioxide is the most accepted material for electrochromic devices. In the work thin films of WO3 were deposited by reactive r.f. sputtering of both metallic (W) and ceramic (WO3) targets to study the correlation between the electrochromic properties and the structures of the films. Samples were grown at different pressures of Ar + O2 in order that the energy regimes of the sputtered particles on the condensing surface could be set either below or above the thermalisation diffusion limit. Lithium ions were intercalated in the films in an aprotic electrolyte and the colouring/bleaching behaviour as a function of the intercalated amount of lithium was detected in the 1st and 10th cycle. From these measurements, the electrochromic properties of the films were worked out. The optical and morphological characteristics were analysed respectively, by spectrophotometric and X-TEM measurements. The amount of water present in the films, detected by IR spectroscopy, turned out to be well correlated to the film morphology and also to the porosity.",
keywords = "Deposition, Electrochromic WO films, Gas pressure, Sputtering",
author = "E. Masetti and Grilli, {M. L.} and G. Dautzenberg and G. Macrelli and M. Adamik",
year = "1999",
language = "English",
volume = "56",
pages = "259--269",
journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
issn = "0927-0248",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of the influence of the gas pressure during the deposition of electrochromic WO3 films by reactive r.f. sputtering of W and WO3 target

AU - Masetti, E.

AU - Grilli, M. L.

AU - Dautzenberg, G.

AU - Macrelli, G.

AU - Adamik, M.

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Tungsten trioxide is the most accepted material for electrochromic devices. In the work thin films of WO3 were deposited by reactive r.f. sputtering of both metallic (W) and ceramic (WO3) targets to study the correlation between the electrochromic properties and the structures of the films. Samples were grown at different pressures of Ar + O2 in order that the energy regimes of the sputtered particles on the condensing surface could be set either below or above the thermalisation diffusion limit. Lithium ions were intercalated in the films in an aprotic electrolyte and the colouring/bleaching behaviour as a function of the intercalated amount of lithium was detected in the 1st and 10th cycle. From these measurements, the electrochromic properties of the films were worked out. The optical and morphological characteristics were analysed respectively, by spectrophotometric and X-TEM measurements. The amount of water present in the films, detected by IR spectroscopy, turned out to be well correlated to the film morphology and also to the porosity.

AB - Tungsten trioxide is the most accepted material for electrochromic devices. In the work thin films of WO3 were deposited by reactive r.f. sputtering of both metallic (W) and ceramic (WO3) targets to study the correlation between the electrochromic properties and the structures of the films. Samples were grown at different pressures of Ar + O2 in order that the energy regimes of the sputtered particles on the condensing surface could be set either below or above the thermalisation diffusion limit. Lithium ions were intercalated in the films in an aprotic electrolyte and the colouring/bleaching behaviour as a function of the intercalated amount of lithium was detected in the 1st and 10th cycle. From these measurements, the electrochromic properties of the films were worked out. The optical and morphological characteristics were analysed respectively, by spectrophotometric and X-TEM measurements. The amount of water present in the films, detected by IR spectroscopy, turned out to be well correlated to the film morphology and also to the porosity.

KW - Deposition

KW - Electrochromic WO films

KW - Gas pressure

KW - Sputtering

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032713791&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032713791&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0032713791

VL - 56

SP - 259

EP - 269

JO - Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

JF - Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

SN - 0927-0248

IS - 3-4

ER -