An anthocyanin marker for direct visualization of plant transformation and its use to study nitrogen-fixing nodule development

Senlei Zhang, É. Kondorosi, A. Kereszt

Research output: Article

Abstract

The development and functioning of the nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legume plants and soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia requires continuous chemical dialogue between the partners using different molecules such as flavonoids, lipo-chitooligosaccharides, polysaccharides and peptides. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root transformation of legumes is widely used to study the function of plant genes involved in the process. The identification of transgenic plant tissues is based on antibiotics/herbicide selection and/or the detection of different reporter genes that usually require special equipment such as fluorescent microscopes or destructive techniques and chemicals to visualize enzymatic activity. Here, we developed and efficiently used in hairy root experiments binary vectors containing the MtLAP1 gene driven by constitutive and tissue-specific promoters that facilitate the production of purple colored anthocyanins in transgenic tissues and thus allowing the identification of transformed roots by naked eye. Anthocyanin producing roots were able to establish effective symbiosis with rhizobia. Moreover, it was shown that species-specific allelic variations and a mutation preventing posttranslational acetyl modification of an essential nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptide, NCR169, do not affect the symbiotic interaction of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong with Sinorhizobium medicae strain WSM419. Based on the experiments, it could be concluded that it is preferable to use the vectors with tissue-specific promoters that restrict anthocyanin production to the root vasculature for studying biotic interactions of the roots such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation or mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Plant Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 2019

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anthocyanins
nitrogen
symbiosis
Rhizobium
Sinorhizobium medicae
legumes
promoter regions
peptides
chitooligosaccharides
Rhizobium rhizogenes
Medicago truncatula
soil bacteria
reporter genes
nitrogen fixation
microscopes
cysteine
plant tissues
transgenic plants
flavonoids
polysaccharides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

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title = "An anthocyanin marker for direct visualization of plant transformation and its use to study nitrogen-fixing nodule development",
abstract = "The development and functioning of the nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legume plants and soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia requires continuous chemical dialogue between the partners using different molecules such as flavonoids, lipo-chitooligosaccharides, polysaccharides and peptides. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root transformation of legumes is widely used to study the function of plant genes involved in the process. The identification of transgenic plant tissues is based on antibiotics/herbicide selection and/or the detection of different reporter genes that usually require special equipment such as fluorescent microscopes or destructive techniques and chemicals to visualize enzymatic activity. Here, we developed and efficiently used in hairy root experiments binary vectors containing the MtLAP1 gene driven by constitutive and tissue-specific promoters that facilitate the production of purple colored anthocyanins in transgenic tissues and thus allowing the identification of transformed roots by naked eye. Anthocyanin producing roots were able to establish effective symbiosis with rhizobia. Moreover, it was shown that species-specific allelic variations and a mutation preventing posttranslational acetyl modification of an essential nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptide, NCR169, do not affect the symbiotic interaction of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong with Sinorhizobium medicae strain WSM419. Based on the experiments, it could be concluded that it is preferable to use the vectors with tissue-specific promoters that restrict anthocyanin production to the root vasculature for studying biotic interactions of the roots such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation or mycorrhizal symbiosis.",
keywords = "Hairy root, Legume symbiosis, Nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, Reporter gene, Transgenic tissue",
author = "Senlei Zhang and {\'E}. Kondorosi and A. Kereszt",
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T1 - An anthocyanin marker for direct visualization of plant transformation and its use to study nitrogen-fixing nodule development

AU - Zhang, Senlei

AU - Kondorosi, É.

AU - Kereszt, A.

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Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The development and functioning of the nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legume plants and soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia requires continuous chemical dialogue between the partners using different molecules such as flavonoids, lipo-chitooligosaccharides, polysaccharides and peptides. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root transformation of legumes is widely used to study the function of plant genes involved in the process. The identification of transgenic plant tissues is based on antibiotics/herbicide selection and/or the detection of different reporter genes that usually require special equipment such as fluorescent microscopes or destructive techniques and chemicals to visualize enzymatic activity. Here, we developed and efficiently used in hairy root experiments binary vectors containing the MtLAP1 gene driven by constitutive and tissue-specific promoters that facilitate the production of purple colored anthocyanins in transgenic tissues and thus allowing the identification of transformed roots by naked eye. Anthocyanin producing roots were able to establish effective symbiosis with rhizobia. Moreover, it was shown that species-specific allelic variations and a mutation preventing posttranslational acetyl modification of an essential nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptide, NCR169, do not affect the symbiotic interaction of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong with Sinorhizobium medicae strain WSM419. Based on the experiments, it could be concluded that it is preferable to use the vectors with tissue-specific promoters that restrict anthocyanin production to the root vasculature for studying biotic interactions of the roots such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation or mycorrhizal symbiosis.

AB - The development and functioning of the nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legume plants and soil bacteria collectively called rhizobia requires continuous chemical dialogue between the partners using different molecules such as flavonoids, lipo-chitooligosaccharides, polysaccharides and peptides. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root transformation of legumes is widely used to study the function of plant genes involved in the process. The identification of transgenic plant tissues is based on antibiotics/herbicide selection and/or the detection of different reporter genes that usually require special equipment such as fluorescent microscopes or destructive techniques and chemicals to visualize enzymatic activity. Here, we developed and efficiently used in hairy root experiments binary vectors containing the MtLAP1 gene driven by constitutive and tissue-specific promoters that facilitate the production of purple colored anthocyanins in transgenic tissues and thus allowing the identification of transformed roots by naked eye. Anthocyanin producing roots were able to establish effective symbiosis with rhizobia. Moreover, it was shown that species-specific allelic variations and a mutation preventing posttranslational acetyl modification of an essential nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptide, NCR169, do not affect the symbiotic interaction of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong with Sinorhizobium medicae strain WSM419. Based on the experiments, it could be concluded that it is preferable to use the vectors with tissue-specific promoters that restrict anthocyanin production to the root vasculature for studying biotic interactions of the roots such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation or mycorrhizal symbiosis.

KW - Hairy root

KW - Legume symbiosis

KW - Nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides

KW - Reporter gene

KW - Transgenic tissue

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