Background: The RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease) classification system was developed to standardize the definition of acute kidney injury (AKI) in adults. We hypothesized that AKI was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Methods: Acute kidney injury was defined as a decrease in the amount of estimated creatinine clearance based on pediatric-modified RIFLE (pRIFLE) criteria. Using propensity score analysis, 325 patients who had AKI were matched to 325 patients who did not have AKI from a database of 1,510 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2004 and December 2008 at a single center. The association between AKI and outcome was analyzed after propensity score matching of perioperative variables. Results: Four hundred eighty-one patients (31.9%) had AKI according to the RIFLE categories. Of those 1,510, 173 (11.5%) reached pRIFLE criteria for risk; 26 (1.7%) reached the criteria for injury; and 282 (18.7%) reached the criteria for failure. Fifty-five patients (3.6%) died. The 2 matched groups were well balanced in terms of measured perioperative variables. Mortality rate was 5.2% in the AKI and 2.5% in the matched control group (p = 0.09). Occurrence of low cardiac output syndrome (p = 0.002), need for dialysis (p < 0.001), and infection (p = 0.03) were significantly higher, and duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) and length of intensive care unit stay (p < 0.001) were significantly longer compared with the matched control group. Conclusions: Acute kidney injury was independently associated with an increased occurrence of postoperative complications but not with mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine