The paper presents data on toxic heavy metals in sediments measured after two large chemical spills on the Tisza watershed area. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that significant volume, high concentration heavy metals reached the Upper Tisza and Szamos River sections. Based on the longitudinal distribution of the heavy metals in sediments, the primary sedimentation zones and concentration increase compared with reference site was determined. Results verified arrival of fresh spills of mining origin and superimposed pollution. Regarding to chronic ecotoxicological effects, degradation and bioaccumulation rates of heavy metals priority problems are associated with arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium in the sediments of the Tisza and Szamos Rivers after the spills of Romanian origin in 2000. Results indicate that the biological availability of the various heavy metals significantly differ along the river, particularly upstream and downstream of the Tisza Lake. The recent investigation did not identify one single sample in which muscular metal concentration of pike (Esox lucius L.) exceeded the present Hungarian consumer guidelines. The investigated pike population on the Tisza River could be divided into characteristic subgroups based on muscular tissue metal concentrations (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and As), depending on the bioavailability of the metalloids at the different river sections. On the basis of the data evaluation, it is concluded that the present state of pollution on Tisza River indicates the potential for deterioration and need for further biomonitoring.
ASJC Scopus subject areas