Calretinin-containing neurons in the hippocampal formation, including the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex, were visualized with immunocytochemistry. Calretinin immunoreactivity was present exclusively in non-principal cells. The largest immunoreactive cell population was found in the outer half of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Ammon's horn. A proportion of these cells were also immunoreactive for reelin, a Cajal-Retzius cell marker. Similar calretinin-positive cells were found in the molecular layer of the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex. In the parasubiculum, a few immunoreactive bipolar and multipolar cells could be observed in the superficial and deep pyramidal cell layers. In the entorhinal cortex, bipolar and multipolar calretinin-positive cells were frequent in layer II, and large numbers of multipolar cells in layer V were immunoreactive. Electron microscopic analysis showed that somata of calretinin-positive cells contained either round nuclei with smooth nuclear envelopes or nuclei with multiple deep infoldings. Immunoreactive dendrites were smooth varicose, and the apposing axon terminals formed both symmetric and asymmetric synapses. Zonula adherentia were observed between calretinin-positive dendrites. Calretinin-positive axon terminals formed two types of synapses. Axon terminals with asymmetric synapses were found close to the hippocampal fissure, whereas axon terminals forming symmetric synapses innervated spiny dendrites in both the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Ammon's horn. Calretinin-positive axon terminals formed both symmetric and asymmetric synapses with calretinin-positive dendrites. In conclusion, calretinin-positive neurons form two major subpopulations in the adult domestic pig hippocampus: (1) a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic subpopulation of local circuit neurons that innervates distal dendrites of principal cells in both the dentate gyrus and in Ammon's horn; and (2) Cajal-Retzius type cells close to the hippocampal fissure, as well as in the molecular layer of the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience