Succinate (SUC), a citrate (CIT) cycle intermediate, and carbenoxolone (CBX), a gap junction inhibitor, were shown to displace [3H]γ- hydroxybutyrate ([3H]GHB), which is specifically bound to sites present in synaptic membrane subcellular fractions of the rat forebrain and the human nucleus accumbens. Elaboration on previous work revealed that acidic pH-induced specific binding of [3H]SUC occurs, and it has been shown to have a biphasic displacement profile distinguishing high-affinity (K i,SUC = 9.1 ± 1.7 μM) and low-affinity (Ki,SUC = 15 ± 7 mM) binding. Both high- and low-affinity sites were characterized by the binding of GHB (Ki,GHB = 3.9 ± 0.5 μM and K i,GHB = 5.0 ± 2.0 mM) and lactate (LAC; Ki,LAC = 3.9 ± 0.5 μM and Ki,LAC = 7.7 ± 0.9 mM). Ligands, including the hemiester ethyl-hemi-SUC, and the gap junction inhibitors flufenamate, CBX, and the GHB binding site-selective NCS-382 interacted with the high-affinity site (in μM: Ki,EHS = 17 ± 5, K i,FFA = 24 ± 13, Ki,CBX = 28 ± 9, K i,NCS-382 = 0.8 ± 0.1 μM). Binding of the Na +,K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-specific α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC), and CIT characterized the low-affinity SUC binding site (in mM: K i,ouabain = 0.13 ± 0.05, Ki,CHC = 0.32 ± 0.07, Ki,CIT = 0.79 ± 0.20). All tested compounds inhibited [3H]SUC binding in the human nucleus accumbens and had K, values similar to those observed in the rat forebrain. The binding process can clearly be recognized as different from synaptic and mitochondrial uptake or astrocytic release of SUC, GHB, and/or CIT by its unique GHB selectivity. The transient decrease of extracellular SUC observed during epileptiform activity suggested that the function of the synaptic target recognizing protonated succinate monocarboxylate may vary under different (patho)physiological conditions. Furthermore, we put forward a hypothesis on the synaptic activity-regulated signaling between astrocytes and neurons via SUC protonation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience