Zwitterionic polymerization of lactide to cyclic poly(lactide) by using N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysts

Darcy A. Culkin, Wonhee Jeong, Szilárd Csihony, Enrique D. Gomez, Nitash P. Balsara, James L. Hedrick, Robert M. Waymouth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

263 Citations (Scopus)


(Chemical Equation Presented) Closing the loop: The zwitterionic ring-opening polymerization of lactide in the presence of N-heterocyclic carbenes generates well-defined cyclic poly(lactide) (see scheme). The polymerization is rapid and produces macrocyclic polymers with high purity and exceptional control of molecular weight and polydispersity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2627-2630
Number of pages4
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Jun 29 2007



  • Cyclization
  • Lactides
  • N-heterocyclic carbenes
  • Ring-opening polymerization
  • Zwitterionic polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)

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