X-ray diffraction investigation of white layer development in hard-turned surfaces

J. Kundrák, Z. Gácsi, K. Gyáni, V. Bana, G. Tomolya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)


Hard turning process is widely used for finishing the hardened surfaces of machine parts exposed to high load. Such parts can be gears, bearings, or short shafts. As in each machining process, hard turning may change the properties of the surface layer. In this research work, we deal with material structure changes developing in the bore of gears made of a material of 20MnCr5. Microscope images show that the structure of the material is altered on the surface of the bores due to the turning process under different conditions. In certain cases, a certain layer that cannot be etched develops, called a white layer. Surface layer modification may take place using different technological data. In this paper, we will prove that proper selection of these technological data (cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate) may eliminate the formation of a white layer or may decrease its thickness. The fine structure of this surface layer was investigated using the X-ray diffraction method, whilst the thickness of the layer was measured by a computer image analysis method. In this paper, the different conditions for the development of the white layer are described, its composition and some of its properties are determined, and the relationship between technological data and the thickness of the white layer is investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-469
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5-8
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2012



  • Hard turning
  • Integrity
  • White layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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