World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide

Richard L. Dowden, Robert H. Holzworth, Craig J. Rodger, J. Lichtenberger, Neil R. Thomson, Abraham R. Jacobson, Erin Lay, James B. Brundell, Thomas J. Lyons, Steven O'Keefe, Zen Kawasaki, Colin Price, Victor Prior, Pascal Ortéga, James Weinman, Yuri Mikhailov, Oscar Veliz, Xiush Qie, Gary Burns, Andrew CollierOsmar Pinto, Ricardo Diaz, Claudia Adamo, Earl R. Williams, Sushil Kumar, G. B. Raga, Jose M. Rosado, Eldo E. Avila, Mark A. Clilverd, Thomas Ulich, Peter Gorham, Thomas J G Shanahan, Thomas Osipowicz, Gregory Cook, Yang Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Worldwide lightning location (WWLL) using only 30 lightning sensors has been successfully achieved by using only VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Ground propagation or mixed "sky" and ground propagation is avoided by requiring evidence of Earth-ionosphere waveguide dispersion. A further requirement is that the lightning strike must be inside the perimeter defined by the lightning sensor sites detecting the stroke. Under these conditions, the time and the location of the stroke can be determined, along with the rms errors. Lightning strokes with errors exceeding 30 Ps or To assist with identifying impulses from the same lightning stroke, the lightning sensor threshold is automatically adjusted to allow an average detection rate of three per second. This largely limits detection to the strongest 4% of all lightning strokes, of which about 40% meet the accuracy requirements for time and location.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-60
Number of pages21
JournalIEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Volume50
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

Earth-ionosphere waveguide
Ionosphere
lightning
Lightning
Waveguides
Earth (planet)
strokes
propagation
sensors
Sensors
requirements
Antenna grounds
sky
impulses
thresholds

Keywords

  • Earth-ionosphere waveguide
  • VLF propagation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. / Dowden, Richard L.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Lichtenberger, J.; Thomson, Neil R.; Jacobson, Abraham R.; Lay, Erin; Brundell, James B.; Lyons, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, Steven; Kawasaki, Zen; Price, Colin; Prior, Victor; Ortéga, Pascal; Weinman, James; Mikhailov, Yuri; Veliz, Oscar; Qie, Xiush; Burns, Gary; Collier, Andrew; Pinto, Osmar; Diaz, Ricardo; Adamo, Claudia; Williams, Earl R.; Kumar, Sushil; Raga, G. B.; Rosado, Jose M.; Avila, Eldo E.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Ulich, Thomas; Gorham, Peter; Shanahan, Thomas J G; Osipowicz, Thomas; Cook, Gregory; Zhao, Yang.

In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2008, p. 40-60.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dowden, RL, Holzworth, RH, Rodger, CJ, Lichtenberger, J, Thomson, NR, Jacobson, AR, Lay, E, Brundell, JB, Lyons, TJ, O'Keefe, S, Kawasaki, Z, Price, C, Prior, V, Ortéga, P, Weinman, J, Mikhailov, Y, Veliz, O, Qie, X, Burns, G, Collier, A, Pinto, O, Diaz, R, Adamo, C, Williams, ER, Kumar, S, Raga, GB, Rosado, JM, Avila, EE, Clilverd, MA, Ulich, T, Gorham, P, Shanahan, TJG, Osipowicz, T, Cook, G & Zhao, Y 2008, 'World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide', IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 40-60. https://doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2008.4674710
Dowden, Richard L. ; Holzworth, Robert H. ; Rodger, Craig J. ; Lichtenberger, J. ; Thomson, Neil R. ; Jacobson, Abraham R. ; Lay, Erin ; Brundell, James B. ; Lyons, Thomas J. ; O'Keefe, Steven ; Kawasaki, Zen ; Price, Colin ; Prior, Victor ; Ortéga, Pascal ; Weinman, James ; Mikhailov, Yuri ; Veliz, Oscar ; Qie, Xiush ; Burns, Gary ; Collier, Andrew ; Pinto, Osmar ; Diaz, Ricardo ; Adamo, Claudia ; Williams, Earl R. ; Kumar, Sushil ; Raga, G. B. ; Rosado, Jose M. ; Avila, Eldo E. ; Clilverd, Mark A. ; Ulich, Thomas ; Gorham, Peter ; Shanahan, Thomas J G ; Osipowicz, Thomas ; Cook, Gregory ; Zhao, Yang. / World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. 2008 ; Vol. 50, No. 5. pp. 40-60.
@article{4632732bd14f419f80630ffeed0aeeeb,
title = "World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide",
abstract = "Worldwide lightning location (WWLL) using only 30 lightning sensors has been successfully achieved by using only VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Ground propagation or mixed {"}sky{"} and ground propagation is avoided by requiring evidence of Earth-ionosphere waveguide dispersion. A further requirement is that the lightning strike must be inside the perimeter defined by the lightning sensor sites detecting the stroke. Under these conditions, the time and the location of the stroke can be determined, along with the rms errors. Lightning strokes with errors exceeding 30 Ps or To assist with identifying impulses from the same lightning stroke, the lightning sensor threshold is automatically adjusted to allow an average detection rate of three per second. This largely limits detection to the strongest 4{\%} of all lightning strokes, of which about 40{\%} meet the accuracy requirements for time and location.",
keywords = "Earth-ionosphere waveguide, VLF propagation",
author = "Dowden, {Richard L.} and Holzworth, {Robert H.} and Rodger, {Craig J.} and J. Lichtenberger and Thomson, {Neil R.} and Jacobson, {Abraham R.} and Erin Lay and Brundell, {James B.} and Lyons, {Thomas J.} and Steven O'Keefe and Zen Kawasaki and Colin Price and Victor Prior and Pascal Ort{\'e}ga and James Weinman and Yuri Mikhailov and Oscar Veliz and Xiush Qie and Gary Burns and Andrew Collier and Osmar Pinto and Ricardo Diaz and Claudia Adamo and Williams, {Earl R.} and Sushil Kumar and Raga, {G. B.} and Rosado, {Jose M.} and Avila, {Eldo E.} and Clilverd, {Mark A.} and Thomas Ulich and Peter Gorham and Shanahan, {Thomas J G} and Thomas Osipowicz and Gregory Cook and Yang Zhao",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1109/MAP.2008.4674710",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "40--60",
journal = "Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Radio Telemetry and Remote Control",
issn = "1045-9243",
publisher = "IEEE Computer Society",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - World-wide lightning location using VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide

AU - Dowden, Richard L.

AU - Holzworth, Robert H.

AU - Rodger, Craig J.

AU - Lichtenberger, J.

AU - Thomson, Neil R.

AU - Jacobson, Abraham R.

AU - Lay, Erin

AU - Brundell, James B.

AU - Lyons, Thomas J.

AU - O'Keefe, Steven

AU - Kawasaki, Zen

AU - Price, Colin

AU - Prior, Victor

AU - Ortéga, Pascal

AU - Weinman, James

AU - Mikhailov, Yuri

AU - Veliz, Oscar

AU - Qie, Xiush

AU - Burns, Gary

AU - Collier, Andrew

AU - Pinto, Osmar

AU - Diaz, Ricardo

AU - Adamo, Claudia

AU - Williams, Earl R.

AU - Kumar, Sushil

AU - Raga, G. B.

AU - Rosado, Jose M.

AU - Avila, Eldo E.

AU - Clilverd, Mark A.

AU - Ulich, Thomas

AU - Gorham, Peter

AU - Shanahan, Thomas J G

AU - Osipowicz, Thomas

AU - Cook, Gregory

AU - Zhao, Yang

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Worldwide lightning location (WWLL) using only 30 lightning sensors has been successfully achieved by using only VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Ground propagation or mixed "sky" and ground propagation is avoided by requiring evidence of Earth-ionosphere waveguide dispersion. A further requirement is that the lightning strike must be inside the perimeter defined by the lightning sensor sites detecting the stroke. Under these conditions, the time and the location of the stroke can be determined, along with the rms errors. Lightning strokes with errors exceeding 30 Ps or To assist with identifying impulses from the same lightning stroke, the lightning sensor threshold is automatically adjusted to allow an average detection rate of three per second. This largely limits detection to the strongest 4% of all lightning strokes, of which about 40% meet the accuracy requirements for time and location.

AB - Worldwide lightning location (WWLL) using only 30 lightning sensors has been successfully achieved by using only VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Ground propagation or mixed "sky" and ground propagation is avoided by requiring evidence of Earth-ionosphere waveguide dispersion. A further requirement is that the lightning strike must be inside the perimeter defined by the lightning sensor sites detecting the stroke. Under these conditions, the time and the location of the stroke can be determined, along with the rms errors. Lightning strokes with errors exceeding 30 Ps or To assist with identifying impulses from the same lightning stroke, the lightning sensor threshold is automatically adjusted to allow an average detection rate of three per second. This largely limits detection to the strongest 4% of all lightning strokes, of which about 40% meet the accuracy requirements for time and location.

KW - Earth-ionosphere waveguide

KW - VLF propagation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58749107342&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58749107342&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/MAP.2008.4674710

DO - 10.1109/MAP.2008.4674710

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:58749107342

VL - 50

SP - 40

EP - 60

JO - Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Radio Telemetry and Remote Control

JF - Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Radio Telemetry and Remote Control

SN - 1045-9243

IS - 5

ER -