W7-AS

One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line

F. Wagner, S. Bäumel, J. Baldzuhn, N. Basse, R. Brakel, R. Burhenn, A. Dinklage, D. Dorst, H. Ehmler, M. Endler, V. Erckmann, Y. Feng, F. Gadelmeier, J. Geiger, L. Giannone, P. Grigull, H. J. Hartfuss, D. Hartmann, D. Hildebrandt, M. Hirsch & 32 others E. Holzhauer, Y. Igitkhanov, R. Jänicke, M. Kick, A. Kislyakov, J. Kisslinger, T. Klinger, S. Klose, J. P. Knauer, R. König, G. Kühner, H. P. Laqua, H. Maassberg, K. McCormick, H. Niedermeyer, C. Nührenberg, E. Pasch, N. Ramasubramanian, N. Ruhs, N. Rust, E. Sallander, F. Sardei, M. Schubert, E. Speth, H. Thomsen, F. Volpe, A. Weller, A. Werner, H. Wobig, E. Würsching, M. Zarnstorff, S. Zoletnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper is a summary of some of the major results from the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS). W7-AS [G. Grieger, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2081 (1992)] has demonstrated the feasibility of modular coils and has pioneered the island divertor and the modeling of its three-dimensional characteristics with the EMC3/EIRENE code [Y. Feng, F. Sardei, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 611 (2002)]. It has extended the operational range to high density (4× 1020 m-3 at 2.5 T) and high 〈Β〉 (3.4% at 0.9 T); it has demonstrated successfully the application of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) beyond cutoff via electron Bernstein wave heating, and it has utilized the toroidal variation of the magnetic field strength for ion cyclotron resonance frequency beach-wave heating. In preparation of W7-X [J. Nührenberg, Trans. Fusion Technol. 27, 71 (1995)], aspects of the optimization concept of the magnetic design have been successfully tested. W7-AS has accessed the H-mode, the first time in a "non-tokamak" and has extended H-mode operation toward high density by the discovery of the high-density H-mode (HDH), characterized by H-mode energy and L-mode-level impurity confinement. In the HDH-mode quasisteady state operation is possible close to operational limits without noticeable degradation in the plasma properties. High- Β phases up to tpulse τE =65 have been achieved, which can already be taken as an indication of the intrinsic stellarator capability of steady-state operation. Confinement issues will be discussed with emphasis on the similarities to tokamak confinement (general transport properties, H-mode transition physics) but also with respect to distinct differences (no confinement degradation toward operational boundaries, positive density scaling, lack of profile resilience, no distinct isotope effect, H-mode operational window). W7-AS turned out to be an important step in the development of the Wendelstein stellarator line towards an independent fusion power plant concept.

Original languageEnglish
Article number072509
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Fingerprint

stellarators
heating
fusion
controlled fusion
degradation
resilience
beaches
power plants
cyclotron resonance
electron cyclotron resonance
isotope effect
field strength
indication
coils
cut-off
transport properties
scaling
impurities
preparation
physics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Wagner, F., Bäumel, S., Baldzuhn, J., Basse, N., Brakel, R., Burhenn, R., ... Zoletnik, S. (2005). W7-AS: One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line. Physics of Plasmas, 12(7), 1-22. [072509]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1927100

W7-AS : One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line. / Wagner, F.; Bäumel, S.; Baldzuhn, J.; Basse, N.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Dinklage, A.; Dorst, D.; Ehmler, H.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Feng, Y.; Gadelmeier, F.; Geiger, J.; Giannone, L.; Grigull, P.; Hartfuss, H. J.; Hartmann, D.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Holzhauer, E.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Jänicke, R.; Kick, M.; Kislyakov, A.; Kisslinger, J.; Klinger, T.; Klose, S.; Knauer, J. P.; König, R.; Kühner, G.; Laqua, H. P.; Maassberg, H.; McCormick, K.; Niedermeyer, H.; Nührenberg, C.; Pasch, E.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Ruhs, N.; Rust, N.; Sallander, E.; Sardei, F.; Schubert, M.; Speth, E.; Thomsen, H.; Volpe, F.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wobig, H.; Würsching, E.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zoletnik, S.

In: Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, No. 7, 072509, 07.2005, p. 1-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wagner, F, Bäumel, S, Baldzuhn, J, Basse, N, Brakel, R, Burhenn, R, Dinklage, A, Dorst, D, Ehmler, H, Endler, M, Erckmann, V, Feng, Y, Gadelmeier, F, Geiger, J, Giannone, L, Grigull, P, Hartfuss, HJ, Hartmann, D, Hildebrandt, D, Hirsch, M, Holzhauer, E, Igitkhanov, Y, Jänicke, R, Kick, M, Kislyakov, A, Kisslinger, J, Klinger, T, Klose, S, Knauer, JP, König, R, Kühner, G, Laqua, HP, Maassberg, H, McCormick, K, Niedermeyer, H, Nührenberg, C, Pasch, E, Ramasubramanian, N, Ruhs, N, Rust, N, Sallander, E, Sardei, F, Schubert, M, Speth, E, Thomsen, H, Volpe, F, Weller, A, Werner, A, Wobig, H, Würsching, E, Zarnstorff, M & Zoletnik, S 2005, 'W7-AS: One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line', Physics of Plasmas, vol. 12, no. 7, 072509, pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1927100
Wagner F, Bäumel S, Baldzuhn J, Basse N, Brakel R, Burhenn R et al. W7-AS: One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line. Physics of Plasmas. 2005 Jul;12(7):1-22. 072509. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1927100
Wagner, F. ; Bäumel, S. ; Baldzuhn, J. ; Basse, N. ; Brakel, R. ; Burhenn, R. ; Dinklage, A. ; Dorst, D. ; Ehmler, H. ; Endler, M. ; Erckmann, V. ; Feng, Y. ; Gadelmeier, F. ; Geiger, J. ; Giannone, L. ; Grigull, P. ; Hartfuss, H. J. ; Hartmann, D. ; Hildebrandt, D. ; Hirsch, M. ; Holzhauer, E. ; Igitkhanov, Y. ; Jänicke, R. ; Kick, M. ; Kislyakov, A. ; Kisslinger, J. ; Klinger, T. ; Klose, S. ; Knauer, J. P. ; König, R. ; Kühner, G. ; Laqua, H. P. ; Maassberg, H. ; McCormick, K. ; Niedermeyer, H. ; Nührenberg, C. ; Pasch, E. ; Ramasubramanian, N. ; Ruhs, N. ; Rust, N. ; Sallander, E. ; Sardei, F. ; Schubert, M. ; Speth, E. ; Thomsen, H. ; Volpe, F. ; Weller, A. ; Werner, A. ; Wobig, H. ; Würsching, E. ; Zarnstorff, M. ; Zoletnik, S. / W7-AS : One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line. In: Physics of Plasmas. 2005 ; Vol. 12, No. 7. pp. 1-22.
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abstract = "This paper is a summary of some of the major results from the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS). W7-AS [G. Grieger, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2081 (1992)] has demonstrated the feasibility of modular coils and has pioneered the island divertor and the modeling of its three-dimensional characteristics with the EMC3/EIRENE code [Y. Feng, F. Sardei, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 611 (2002)]. It has extended the operational range to high density (4× 1020 m-3 at 2.5 T) and high 〈Β〉 (3.4{\%} at 0.9 T); it has demonstrated successfully the application of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) beyond cutoff via electron Bernstein wave heating, and it has utilized the toroidal variation of the magnetic field strength for ion cyclotron resonance frequency beach-wave heating. In preparation of W7-X [J. N{\"u}hrenberg, Trans. Fusion Technol. 27, 71 (1995)], aspects of the optimization concept of the magnetic design have been successfully tested. W7-AS has accessed the H-mode, the first time in a {"}non-tokamak{"} and has extended H-mode operation toward high density by the discovery of the high-density H-mode (HDH), characterized by H-mode energy and L-mode-level impurity confinement. In the HDH-mode quasisteady state operation is possible close to operational limits without noticeable degradation in the plasma properties. High- Β phases up to tpulse τE =65 have been achieved, which can already be taken as an indication of the intrinsic stellarator capability of steady-state operation. Confinement issues will be discussed with emphasis on the similarities to tokamak confinement (general transport properties, H-mode transition physics) but also with respect to distinct differences (no confinement degradation toward operational boundaries, positive density scaling, lack of profile resilience, no distinct isotope effect, H-mode operational window). W7-AS turned out to be an important step in the development of the Wendelstein stellarator line towards an independent fusion power plant concept.",
author = "F. Wagner and S. B{\"a}umel and J. Baldzuhn and N. Basse and R. Brakel and R. Burhenn and A. Dinklage and D. Dorst and H. Ehmler and M. Endler and V. Erckmann and Y. Feng and F. Gadelmeier and J. Geiger and L. Giannone and P. Grigull and Hartfuss, {H. J.} and D. Hartmann and D. Hildebrandt and M. Hirsch and E. Holzhauer and Y. Igitkhanov and R. J{\"a}nicke and M. Kick and A. Kislyakov and J. Kisslinger and T. Klinger and S. Klose and Knauer, {J. P.} and R. K{\"o}nig and G. K{\"u}hner and Laqua, {H. P.} and H. Maassberg and K. McCormick and H. Niedermeyer and C. N{\"u}hrenberg and E. Pasch and N. Ramasubramanian and N. Ruhs and N. Rust and E. Sallander and F. Sardei and M. Schubert and E. Speth and H. Thomsen and F. Volpe and A. Weller and A. Werner and H. Wobig and E. W{\"u}rsching and M. Zarnstorff and S. Zoletnik",
year = "2005",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1063/1.1927100",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "1--22",
journal = "Physics of Plasmas",
issn = "1070-664X",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - W7-AS

T2 - One step of the Wendelstein stellarator line

AU - Wagner, F.

AU - Bäumel, S.

AU - Baldzuhn, J.

AU - Basse, N.

AU - Brakel, R.

AU - Burhenn, R.

AU - Dinklage, A.

AU - Dorst, D.

AU - Ehmler, H.

AU - Endler, M.

AU - Erckmann, V.

AU - Feng, Y.

AU - Gadelmeier, F.

AU - Geiger, J.

AU - Giannone, L.

AU - Grigull, P.

AU - Hartfuss, H. J.

AU - Hartmann, D.

AU - Hildebrandt, D.

AU - Hirsch, M.

AU - Holzhauer, E.

AU - Igitkhanov, Y.

AU - Jänicke, R.

AU - Kick, M.

AU - Kislyakov, A.

AU - Kisslinger, J.

AU - Klinger, T.

AU - Klose, S.

AU - Knauer, J. P.

AU - König, R.

AU - Kühner, G.

AU - Laqua, H. P.

AU - Maassberg, H.

AU - McCormick, K.

AU - Niedermeyer, H.

AU - Nührenberg, C.

AU - Pasch, E.

AU - Ramasubramanian, N.

AU - Ruhs, N.

AU - Rust, N.

AU - Sallander, E.

AU - Sardei, F.

AU - Schubert, M.

AU - Speth, E.

AU - Thomsen, H.

AU - Volpe, F.

AU - Weller, A.

AU - Werner, A.

AU - Wobig, H.

AU - Würsching, E.

AU - Zarnstorff, M.

AU - Zoletnik, S.

PY - 2005/7

Y1 - 2005/7

N2 - This paper is a summary of some of the major results from the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS). W7-AS [G. Grieger, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2081 (1992)] has demonstrated the feasibility of modular coils and has pioneered the island divertor and the modeling of its three-dimensional characteristics with the EMC3/EIRENE code [Y. Feng, F. Sardei, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 611 (2002)]. It has extended the operational range to high density (4× 1020 m-3 at 2.5 T) and high 〈Β〉 (3.4% at 0.9 T); it has demonstrated successfully the application of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) beyond cutoff via electron Bernstein wave heating, and it has utilized the toroidal variation of the magnetic field strength for ion cyclotron resonance frequency beach-wave heating. In preparation of W7-X [J. Nührenberg, Trans. Fusion Technol. 27, 71 (1995)], aspects of the optimization concept of the magnetic design have been successfully tested. W7-AS has accessed the H-mode, the first time in a "non-tokamak" and has extended H-mode operation toward high density by the discovery of the high-density H-mode (HDH), characterized by H-mode energy and L-mode-level impurity confinement. In the HDH-mode quasisteady state operation is possible close to operational limits without noticeable degradation in the plasma properties. High- Β phases up to tpulse τE =65 have been achieved, which can already be taken as an indication of the intrinsic stellarator capability of steady-state operation. Confinement issues will be discussed with emphasis on the similarities to tokamak confinement (general transport properties, H-mode transition physics) but also with respect to distinct differences (no confinement degradation toward operational boundaries, positive density scaling, lack of profile resilience, no distinct isotope effect, H-mode operational window). W7-AS turned out to be an important step in the development of the Wendelstein stellarator line towards an independent fusion power plant concept.

AB - This paper is a summary of some of the major results from the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS). W7-AS [G. Grieger, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2081 (1992)] has demonstrated the feasibility of modular coils and has pioneered the island divertor and the modeling of its three-dimensional characteristics with the EMC3/EIRENE code [Y. Feng, F. Sardei, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 44, 611 (2002)]. It has extended the operational range to high density (4× 1020 m-3 at 2.5 T) and high 〈Β〉 (3.4% at 0.9 T); it has demonstrated successfully the application of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) beyond cutoff via electron Bernstein wave heating, and it has utilized the toroidal variation of the magnetic field strength for ion cyclotron resonance frequency beach-wave heating. In preparation of W7-X [J. Nührenberg, Trans. Fusion Technol. 27, 71 (1995)], aspects of the optimization concept of the magnetic design have been successfully tested. W7-AS has accessed the H-mode, the first time in a "non-tokamak" and has extended H-mode operation toward high density by the discovery of the high-density H-mode (HDH), characterized by H-mode energy and L-mode-level impurity confinement. In the HDH-mode quasisteady state operation is possible close to operational limits without noticeable degradation in the plasma properties. High- Β phases up to tpulse τE =65 have been achieved, which can already be taken as an indication of the intrinsic stellarator capability of steady-state operation. Confinement issues will be discussed with emphasis on the similarities to tokamak confinement (general transport properties, H-mode transition physics) but also with respect to distinct differences (no confinement degradation toward operational boundaries, positive density scaling, lack of profile resilience, no distinct isotope effect, H-mode operational window). W7-AS turned out to be an important step in the development of the Wendelstein stellarator line towards an independent fusion power plant concept.

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