Volume measurement of cryogenic deuterium pellets by Bayesian analysis of single shadowgraphy images

T. Szepesi, S. Kálvin, G. Kocsis, P. T. Lang, C. Wittmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


In situ commissioning of the Blower-gun injector for launching cryogenic deuterium pellets at ASDEX Upgrade tokamak was performed. This injector is designed for high repetitive launch of small pellets for edge localised modes pacing experiments. During the investigation the final injection geometry was simulated with pellets passing to the torus through a 5.5 m long guiding tube. For investigation of pellet quality at launch and after tube passage laser flash camera shadowgraphy diagnostic units before and after the tube were installed. As indicator of pellet quality we adopted the pellet mass represented by the volume of the main remaining pellet fragment. Since only two-dimensional (2D) shadow images were obtained, a reconstruction of the full three-dimensional pellet body had to be performed. For this the image was first converted into a 1-bit version prescribing an exact 2D contour. From this contour the expected value of the volume was calculated by Bayesian analysis taking into account the likely cylindrical shape of the pellet. Under appropriate injection conditions sound pellets with more than half of their nominal mass are detected after acceleration; the passage causes in average an additional loss of about 40% to the launched mass. Analyzing pellets arriving at tube exit allowed for deriving the injector's optimized operational conditions. For these more than 90% of the pellets were arriving with sound quality when operating in the frequency range 5-50 Hz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033501
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 8 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation

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