Vitamin-caused faulty perinatal hormonal imprinting and its consequences in adult age

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Lipid-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) are actually hormones (exohormones), as they can be directly bound by hormone receptors or are in connection with molecules, which influence hormone receptors. Vitamin D is a transition between endo- and exohormones and the possibility of similar situation in case of other lipid-soluble hormones is discussed. The perinatal exposition with these “vitamins” can cause faulty perinatal hormonal imprinting with similar consequences as the faulty imprinting by the synthetic endohormones, members of the same hormone family or industrial, communal, or medical endocrine disruptors. The faulty imprinting leads to late (lifelong) consequences with altered hormone binding by receptors, altered sexuality, brain function, immunity, bone development, and fractures, etc. In addition, as hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process, the effect of a single exposure by fat-soluble vitamins is inherited to the progeny generations. As vitamins are handled differently from hormones; however, perinatal treatments take place frequently and sometimes it is forced, the negative late effect of faulty perinatal vitamin-caused hormonal imprinting must be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-225
Number of pages9
JournalPhysiology International
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2017



  • Epigenetic inheritance
  • Faulty imprinting
  • Hormonal imprinting
  • Lipid-soluble vitamins
  • Perinatal exposures
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)

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