Vinylester/epoxy-based thermosets of interpenetrating network structure: An atomic force microscopic study

J. Karger-Kocsis, O. Gryshchuk, S. Schmitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)


The morphology of vinylester (VE) and epoxy (EP) resins, and their combination (VE/EP at a ratio 1/1) was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM scans taken on the ion-etched surface of EP showed a featureless homogeneous structure. On the other hand, VE exhibited a two-phase microgel, whereas VE/EP a two-phase interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. A vinylester-urethane hybrid resin (VEUH) showed also the formation of an IPN-like morphology. It was concluded that cross-reactions between the hydroxyl functionality of VE and additional functional groups, such as isocyanate in VEUH or epoxy in VE/EP combinations, strongly favour the IPN formation. AFM scans revealed the compaction of the IPN structure of VE/EP upon post-curing which was associated with a prominent increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) according to dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-420
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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