Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (a review)

F. Tóth, Attila Bácsi, Zoltán Beck, J. Szabó

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sensitive detection methods, such as DNA PCR and RNA PCR suggest that vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs at three major time periods; in utero, around the time of birth, and postpartum as a result of breastfeeding (Fig. 1). Detection of proviral DNA in infant's blood at birth suggests that transmission occurred prior to delivery. A working definition for time of infection is that HIV detection by DNA PCR in the first 48 h of life indicates in utero transmission, while peripartum transmission is considered if DNA PCR is negative the first 48 h, but then it is positive 7 or more days later [1]. Generally, in the breastfeeding population, breast milk transmission is thought to occur if virus is not detected by PCR at 3-5 months of life but is detected thereafter within the breastfeeding period [2]. Using these definitions and guidelines, studies has suggested that in developed countries the majority, or two thirds of vertical transmission occur peripartum, and one-third in utero [3-6]. The low rate of breastfeeding transmission is due to the practice of advising known HIV-positive mothers not to feed breast milk. However, since the implementation of antiretroviral treatment in prophylaxis of HIV-positive mothers, some studies have suggested that in utero infection accounts for a larger percentage of vertical transmissions [7]. In developing countries, although the majority of infections occurs also peripartum, a significant percentage, 10-17%, is thought to be due to breastfeeding [2, 8, 9].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-427
Number of pages15
JournalActa Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Volume48
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Breast Feeding
Peripartum Period
HIV
Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA
Human Milk
Infection
Mothers
Parturition
Developed Countries
Postpartum Period
Developing Countries
Guidelines
RNA
Viruses
Population
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • HIV
  • Routes of infection
  • Vertical transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Medicine(all)
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (a review). / Tóth, F.; Bácsi, Attila; Beck, Zoltán; Szabó, J.

In: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, 2001, p. 413-427.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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