Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in tissues is a major risk factor for diabetes-associated complications. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) values measured by a specific noninvasive approach (AGE Reader; DiagnOptics Technologies B.V., Gröningen, The Netherlands) reflect the overall AGE exposure in skin. Subjects and Methods: In 16 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (age range, 11-18 years) we tested the association between SAF measured with an AGE Reader and the presence of glucuronic acid, 3-indoxyl sulfate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, phenol sulfate, and pentosidine in skin tissue determined with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). These compounds are implicated in long-term diabetes complications. Results: SAF values significantly correlated with levels of compounds measured by DESI-MS (r>0.9 and P<0.001 for each). Conclusions: The strong correlation between adolescents' SAF values measured with the AGE Reader and some glycation products measured with DESI-MS indicates that SAF values may be used as surrogate markers of skin exposure to glycemic end products in type 1 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Medical Laboratory Technology