BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Restenosis occurs invariably within 12 months following balloon valvuloplasty (BAV) in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), and is a limiting factor of this treatment. Cellular proliferation secondary to balloon injury is thought to play a pivotal role in the mechanism of restenosis. The study aim was to investigate the potential role of a paclitaxel-eluting valvuloplasty balloon to mitigate the progression of restenosis in an animal model of CAVD.
METHODS: Fifty-three rabbits were fed with an aortic stenosis (AS)-inducing diet (cholesterol 0.5% plus vitamin D3 50,000 IU/day) for three months. The surviving animals (n = 40) underwent echocardiographic and invasive assessments, followed by valvuloplasty, randomly using either a paclitaxel-coated (3 μg/mm2) or a plain balloon. At one month after BAV, the surviving animals (n = 28) underwent repeat assessments, followed by histology and micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) analysis of the aortic valve.
RESULTS: The baseline and post-BAV transvalvular gradients, aortic valve area (AVA), left ventricular stroke work loss (SWL) and aortic valve resistance (AVR) were similar between the groups (14 rabbits were assigned to paclitaxel-eluting, and 14 to plain balloon). Significant differences between the groups were observed at one-month post-BAV, which was suggestive of diminished restenosis in the paclitaxel-balloon group (mean maximum transvalvular pressure gradient 7.7 ± 7.7 versus 3.6 ± 3.7 mmHg, p = 0.08; AVA 0.91 ± 0.59 versus 0.55 ± 0.22 cm2, p = 0.04; SWL 3.5 ± 4.0 versus 8.6 ± 8.0%, p = 0.047; AVR 86 ± 71 versus 177 ± 137 dynes/s/cm(-5), p = 0.039). Histology demonstrated decreased leaflet thickness (0.60 ± 0.15 versus 0.71 ± 0.17 mm, p = 0.03), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining (grade 1.53 ± 0.04 versus 2.24 ± 0.55, p = 0.049), and calcification in the paclitaxel-balloon group.
CONCLUSION: Use of a paclitaxel-eluting valvuloplasty balloon in an animal model of AS resulted in attenuated restenosis, secondary to decrease in valve proliferation and calcification.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||The Journal of heart valve disease|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 1 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine