Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production: From composites to highly active hollow structures

Tamás Gyulavári, Gábor Veréb, Zsolt Pap, Balázs Réti, Kornelia Baan, Milica Todea, Klára Magyari, Imre Miklós Szilágyi, K. Hernádi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Titanium dioxide-carbon sphere (TiO2-CS) composites were constructed via using prefabricated carbon spheres as templates. By the removal of template from the TiO2-CS, TiO2 hollow structures (HS) were synthesized. The CS templates were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of ordinary table sugar (sucrose). TiO2-HSs were obtained by removing CSs with calcination. Our own sensitized TiO2 was used for coating the CSs. The structure of the CSs, TiO2-CS composites, and TiO2-HSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The effect of various synthesis parameters (purification method of CSs, precursor quantity, and applied furnace) on the morphology was investigated. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by phenol model pollutant degradation under visible light irradiation (Λ > 400 nm). It was established that the composite samples possess lower crystallinity and photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 hollow structures. Based on XPS measurements, the carbon content on the surface of the TiO2-HS exerts an adverse effect on the photocatalytic performance. The synthesis parameters were optimized and the TiO2-HS specimen having the best absolute and surface normalized photocatalytic efficiency was identified. The superior properties were explained in terms of its unique morphology and surface properties. The stability of this TiO2-HS was investigated via XRD and SEM measurements after three consecutive phenol degradation tests, and it was found to be highly stable as it entirely retained its crystal phase composition, morphology and photocatalytic activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2537
JournalMaterials
Volume12
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2019

Fingerprint

Nanospheres
Photocatalysts
Carbon
Sugar (sucrose)
Phenol
Phenols
Composite materials
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Dietary Sucrose
X ray diffraction
Degradation
Scanning electron microscopy
Phase composition
Calcination
Titanium dioxide
Surface properties
Purification
Sucrose
Infrared spectroscopy
Furnaces

Keywords

  • Carbon spheres
  • Composite
  • Hollow structures
  • Phenol
  • Photocatalysis
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Visible light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production : From composites to highly active hollow structures. / Gyulavári, Tamás; Veréb, Gábor; Pap, Zsolt; Réti, Balázs; Baan, Kornelia; Todea, Milica; Magyari, Klára; Szilágyi, Imre Miklós; Hernádi, K.

In: Materials, Vol. 12, No. 16, 2537, 01.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gyulavári, T, Veréb, G, Pap, Z, Réti, B, Baan, K, Todea, M, Magyari, K, Szilágyi, IM & Hernádi, K 2019, 'Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production: From composites to highly active hollow structures', Materials, vol. 12, no. 16, 2537. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162537
Gyulavári, Tamás ; Veréb, Gábor ; Pap, Zsolt ; Réti, Balázs ; Baan, Kornelia ; Todea, Milica ; Magyari, Klára ; Szilágyi, Imre Miklós ; Hernádi, K. / Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production : From composites to highly active hollow structures. In: Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 16.
@article{de886c2536bc49969d416492837ae724,
title = "Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production: From composites to highly active hollow structures",
abstract = "Titanium dioxide-carbon sphere (TiO2-CS) composites were constructed via using prefabricated carbon spheres as templates. By the removal of template from the TiO2-CS, TiO2 hollow structures (HS) were synthesized. The CS templates were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of ordinary table sugar (sucrose). TiO2-HSs were obtained by removing CSs with calcination. Our own sensitized TiO2 was used for coating the CSs. The structure of the CSs, TiO2-CS composites, and TiO2-HSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The effect of various synthesis parameters (purification method of CSs, precursor quantity, and applied furnace) on the morphology was investigated. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by phenol model pollutant degradation under visible light irradiation (Λ > 400 nm). It was established that the composite samples possess lower crystallinity and photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 hollow structures. Based on XPS measurements, the carbon content on the surface of the TiO2-HS exerts an adverse effect on the photocatalytic performance. The synthesis parameters were optimized and the TiO2-HS specimen having the best absolute and surface normalized photocatalytic efficiency was identified. The superior properties were explained in terms of its unique morphology and surface properties. The stability of this TiO2-HS was investigated via XRD and SEM measurements after three consecutive phenol degradation tests, and it was found to be highly stable as it entirely retained its crystal phase composition, morphology and photocatalytic activity.",
keywords = "Carbon spheres, Composite, Hollow structures, Phenol, Photocatalysis, Titanium dioxide, Visible light",
author = "Tam{\'a}s Gyulav{\'a}ri and G{\'a}bor Ver{\'e}b and Zsolt Pap and Bal{\'a}zs R{\'e}ti and Kornelia Baan and Milica Todea and Kl{\'a}ra Magyari and Szil{\'a}gyi, {Imre Mikl{\'o}s} and K. Hern{\'a}di",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/ma12162537",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Materials",
issn = "1996-1944",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "16",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Utilization of carbon nanospheres in photocatalyst production

T2 - From composites to highly active hollow structures

AU - Gyulavári, Tamás

AU - Veréb, Gábor

AU - Pap, Zsolt

AU - Réti, Balázs

AU - Baan, Kornelia

AU - Todea, Milica

AU - Magyari, Klára

AU - Szilágyi, Imre Miklós

AU - Hernádi, K.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Titanium dioxide-carbon sphere (TiO2-CS) composites were constructed via using prefabricated carbon spheres as templates. By the removal of template from the TiO2-CS, TiO2 hollow structures (HS) were synthesized. The CS templates were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of ordinary table sugar (sucrose). TiO2-HSs were obtained by removing CSs with calcination. Our own sensitized TiO2 was used for coating the CSs. The structure of the CSs, TiO2-CS composites, and TiO2-HSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The effect of various synthesis parameters (purification method of CSs, precursor quantity, and applied furnace) on the morphology was investigated. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by phenol model pollutant degradation under visible light irradiation (Λ > 400 nm). It was established that the composite samples possess lower crystallinity and photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 hollow structures. Based on XPS measurements, the carbon content on the surface of the TiO2-HS exerts an adverse effect on the photocatalytic performance. The synthesis parameters were optimized and the TiO2-HS specimen having the best absolute and surface normalized photocatalytic efficiency was identified. The superior properties were explained in terms of its unique morphology and surface properties. The stability of this TiO2-HS was investigated via XRD and SEM measurements after three consecutive phenol degradation tests, and it was found to be highly stable as it entirely retained its crystal phase composition, morphology and photocatalytic activity.

AB - Titanium dioxide-carbon sphere (TiO2-CS) composites were constructed via using prefabricated carbon spheres as templates. By the removal of template from the TiO2-CS, TiO2 hollow structures (HS) were synthesized. The CS templates were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of ordinary table sugar (sucrose). TiO2-HSs were obtained by removing CSs with calcination. Our own sensitized TiO2 was used for coating the CSs. The structure of the CSs, TiO2-CS composites, and TiO2-HSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The effect of various synthesis parameters (purification method of CSs, precursor quantity, and applied furnace) on the morphology was investigated. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by phenol model pollutant degradation under visible light irradiation (Λ > 400 nm). It was established that the composite samples possess lower crystallinity and photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 hollow structures. Based on XPS measurements, the carbon content on the surface of the TiO2-HS exerts an adverse effect on the photocatalytic performance. The synthesis parameters were optimized and the TiO2-HS specimen having the best absolute and surface normalized photocatalytic efficiency was identified. The superior properties were explained in terms of its unique morphology and surface properties. The stability of this TiO2-HS was investigated via XRD and SEM measurements after three consecutive phenol degradation tests, and it was found to be highly stable as it entirely retained its crystal phase composition, morphology and photocatalytic activity.

KW - Carbon spheres

KW - Composite

KW - Hollow structures

KW - Phenol

KW - Photocatalysis

KW - Titanium dioxide

KW - Visible light

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85070641868&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85070641868&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ma12162537

DO - 10.3390/ma12162537

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85070641868

VL - 12

JO - Materials

JF - Materials

SN - 1996-1944

IS - 16

M1 - 2537

ER -