Type II restriction endonucleases: Structure and mechanism

A. Pingoud, M. Fuxreiter, V. Pingoud, W. Wende

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

333 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Type II restriction endonucleases are components of restriction modification systems that protect bacteria and archaea against invading foreign DNA. Most are homodimeric or tetrameric enzymes that cleave DNA at defined sites of 4-8 bp in length and require Mg2+ ions for catalysis. They differ in the details of the recognition process and the mode of cleavage, indicators that these enzymes are more diverse than originally thought. Still, most of them have a similar structural core and seem to share a common mechanism of DNA cleavage, suggesting that they evolved from a common ancestor. Only a few restriction endonucleases discovered thus far do not belong to the PD...D/ExK family of enzymes, but rather have active sites typical of other endonuclease families. The present review deals with new developments in the field of Type II restriction endonucleases. One of the more interesting aspects is the increasing awareness of the diversity of Type II restriction enzymes. Nevertheless, structural studies summarized herein deal with the more common subtypes. A major emphasis of this review will be on target site location and the mechanism of catalysis, two problems currently being addressed in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-707
Number of pages23
JournalCellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Volume62
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005

Fingerprint

Type II Site Specific Deoxyribonucleases
Catalysis
DNA
Enzymes
DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes
DNA Cleavage
Endonucleases
Archaea
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Catalytic Domain
Bacteria
Ions

Keywords

  • DNA cleavage
  • DNA recognition
  • Evolution
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Mechanism of phosphodiester bond hydrolysis
  • Protein engineering
  • Protein-nucleic acid interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Type II restriction endonucleases : Structure and mechanism. / Pingoud, A.; Fuxreiter, M.; Pingoud, V.; Wende, W.

In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 6, 03.2005, p. 685-707.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pingoud, A. ; Fuxreiter, M. ; Pingoud, V. ; Wende, W. / Type II restriction endonucleases : Structure and mechanism. In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2005 ; Vol. 62, No. 6. pp. 685-707.
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