Two novel picornaviruses were serendipitously identified in apparently healthy young domesticanimals-cattle (Bos taurus)and, subsequently, sheep (Ovis aries)-in Hungary during 2008 and 2009. Complete genome sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the two viruses are related to each other and have identical genome organizations, VPg+5' UTRIRES-II[L/1A-1B-1C-1D-2ANPG↓P/2B-2C/3A-3BVPg-3Cpro-3Dpol] 3= UTR-poly(A). We suggest that they form two novel viral genotypes/serotypes,bovine hungarovirus 1 (BHuV-1; GenBank accession number JQ941880) and ovine hungarovirus 1 (OHuV-1; GenBank accession number HM153767), which may belong to a potential novel picornavirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genome lengthsof BHuV-1 and OHuV-1 are 7,583 and 7,588 nucleotides, each comprising a single open reading frameencoding 2,243 and 2,252amino acids, respectively. In the 5= untranslated regions (5= UTRs), both hungaroviruses are predicted to have a type IIinternal ribosome entry site (IRES). The nucleotide sequence and the secondary RNA structure of the hungarovirus IRES core domains H-I-J-K-L are highly similar to that of human parechovirus (HPeV) (genus Parechovirus), especially HPeV-3. However,inthe polyprotein coding region, the amino acid sequences are more closely related to those of porcine teschoviruses (genus Teschovirus).Hungaroviruses were detected in 15% (4/26) and 25% (4/16) of the fecal samples from cattle and sheep, respectively.This report describes the discovery of two novel picornaviruses in farm animals, cattle and sheep. The mosaic genetic pattern raises the possibility that hungaroviruses, human parechoviruses, and porcine teschoviruses may be linked to each other by modular recombination of functional noncoding RNA elements.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science