Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α producing tumors as vaccines were demonstrated to induce a therapeutic anti-tumor immune response, but their clinical use is limited by the toxicity of soluble TNF. We investigated the growth characteristics and immunomodulatory properties of HeLa cells producing an uncleavable transmembrane form of TNF (preTNF). The growth of the transformed tumors was compromised in both immunosuppressed and severe combined immunodeficient mice; no signs of TNF toxicity were detected. Macrophages co-cultured with the transformed cells showed increased phagocytosis and cytokine production, indicating that activated macrophages may be the mediators of the anti-tumor effect. preTNF producing tumor cells are promising safe anti-tumor vaccine candidates.
- Macrophage tumor killing
- Membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor
- Severe combined immunodeficient mice
- Tumor gene therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research