Triassic facies development in Central Europe is characterized by two different palaeogeographic settings: (1) the NW Tethys shelf area (Tethyan or Alpine realm) and (2) the northern, peripheral, semi-closed Germanic Basin (Germanic realm). The sedimentary successions of both realms reflect the long-term transgressive evolution following a global sea-level lowstand at the end of the Permian, and a recovery of marine and terrestrial ecosystems after the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history. Deposits of the Alpine realm document a marine development associated with the westward opening of the Tethys Ocean. In contrast, the Germanic Basin was lacking open marine conditions for most of the Triassic period. Marine incursions were controlled by connecting seaways between the Germanic Basin and the NW Tethys shelf. Major flooding occurred in the Pelsonian and at the time around the Fassanian-Longobardian boundary. These flooding phases affected both domains and are clearly documented in the sedimentary record by the presence of open-marine faunal elements. Within the Alpine realm, an increasing differentiation of depositional environments occurred from Ladinian times onwards. This resulted in the development of reef-dominated platforms, intrashelf and open-marine basins. In the Germanic realm, the marine evolution of the basin terminated in the early Carnian. A subsequent major flooding phase commenced during mid-Rhaetian times and gave rise to the transgressive systems of the succeeding Lower Jurassic stage. Facies diachroneity is a common feature in the Germanic Basin and is a result of the Tethyan ingressions. Tectonic movements are documented in both realms during the Triassic. They are represented by major unconformities and the deposition of seismites. Biostratigraphic correlation of Alpine and Germanic deposits is most successful using palynology, which is applicable in both continental and marine environments. Recent magnetostratigraphic data provide a good basis for stratigraphie refinement. Depositional sequences have been described from Alpine and Germanic sedimentary successions but these require further refinement, in particular with respect to high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy in the Milankovitch frequency band. A. Wetzel (Basel) is thanked for helpful suggestions and improvements to the section on Switzerland. We thank R. Hoffmann and K. Hlawatsch (Halle) for drafting many of the figures, and T. Bechstädt (Heidelberg) for reviewing this chapter. We are very grateful to an anonymous reviewer who did a very thorough review of the manuscript and made many comments and suggestions that substantially contributed to improving this chapter.
|Number of pages||73|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Arts and Humanities(all)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Political Science and International Relations