Transition to injecting 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) among needle exchange program participants in Hungary

Róbert Csák, Zsolt Demetrovics, József Rácz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)


In 2011, anecdotal data indicated that 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) might become popular among needle exchange program (NEP) clients in Hungary as a possible substitute for formerly used substances such as amphetamines and heroin. The aim of the study reported here was to examine how the emergence of MDPV influenced the choice of the injecting substance among NEP clients. A total of 183 injecting drug users (IDUs) participating in the largest NEP in Budapest agreed to participate in the study and report on their drug use habits. During 2011, remarkable changes occurred in the structure of the primary injected substances. Amphetamine was cited as the primary injected substance by 45.9% of the respondents and MDPV by 48.1%. Close to half of the former amphetamine injectors had switched to MDPV (64 persons, 45.1%) as had 10 (41.7%) of the former heroin injectors and 11 (78.6%) of those using other substances (cocaine and mephedrone). The appearance of MDPV on the illegal drug market had a substantial effect on the drug use patterns of the IDU population. Further research should be conducted to explain the changes, that might include the purity, price and availability of amphetamine and heroin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)559-563
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Psychopharmacology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2013


  • 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV)
  • injecting drug use
  • needle exchange programs
  • new psychoactive substances

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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