Despite the increasing number and quantity of nanomaterials released in the environment, our knowledge on their bioavailability and possible toxicity to organisms is rather limited. Thus, we know quite little about sensitivity of various nematode feeding types and life strategies to treatments with nano metal oxides. The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) (with a particle size of 25 nm) and the bulk counterpart was investigated in two free-living nematode species of different life strategies: Xiphinema vuittenezi, a K-strategist plant-feeder nematode and Panagrellus redivivus, an r-strategist bacterivor nematode. The internal zinc concentration and the concentration of minor and trace elements were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Concentration-dependent mortality in both nematode species was observed following a 24-h exposure both to nano-ZnO and bulk ZnO. The zinc concentration of the treating suspension had a significant effect on the internal zinc content of the animals in both cases. Particle size did not influence the internal zinc content. Our results show that nano and bulk ZnO have a similar dose-response effect on mortality of the bacterivor P. redivivus. In contrast, the nano-ZnO has stronger toxic effect on the mortality of X. vuittenezi. In general, X. vuittenezi did not react more sensitively to the treatments than P. redivivus, but appeared sensitive to the nano-ZnO treatment compared to bulk ZnO.
- Free-living nematodes
- ZnO nanoparticles
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis