Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

Ji Qing Chen, Peter Szodoray, Margit Zeher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders, characterized by the dysregulation of the immune system which finally results in the break of tolerance to self-antigen. Several studies suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. TLRs belong to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs are type I transmembrane proteins and located on various cellular membranes. Two main groups have been classified based on their location; the extracelluar group referred to the ones located on the plasma membrane while the intracellular group all located in endosomal compartments responsible for the recognition of nucleic acids. They are released by the host cells and trigger various intracellular pathways which results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules to protect against invading microorganisms. In particular, TLR pathway-associated proteins, such as IRAK, TRAF, and SOCS, are often dysregulated in this group of diseases. TLR-associated gene expression profile analysis together with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessment could be important to explain the pathomechanism driving autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on TLR pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and psoriasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalClinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016

Keywords

  • Autoimmune disease
  • IL-1-receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)
  • Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)
  • TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this