"TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region: X. analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations

E. Vilenius, C. Kiss, T. Müller, M. Mommert, P. Santos-Sanz, A. Pál, J. Stansberry, M. Mueller, N. Peixinho, E. Lellouch, S. Fornasier, A. Delsanti, A. Thirouin, J. L. Ortiz, R. Duffard, D. Perna, F. Henry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. The Kuiper belt is formed of planetesimals which failed to grow to planets and its dynamical structure has been affected by Neptune. The classical Kuiper belt contains objects both from a low-inclination, presumably primordial, distribution and from a high-inclination dynamically excited population. Aims. Based on a sample of classical trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with observations at thermal wavelengths we determine radiometric sizes, geometric albedos and thermal beaming factors for each object as well as study sample properties of dynamically hot and cold classicals. Methods. Observations near the thermal peak of TNOs using infrared space telescopes are combined with optical magnitudes using the radiometric technique with near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We have determined three-band flux densities from Herschel/PACS observations at 70.0, 100.0 and 160.0 μm and Spitzer/MIPS at 23.68 and 71.42 μm when available. We use reexamined absolute visual magnitudes from the literature and ground based programs in support of Herschel observations. Results. We have analysed 18 classical TNOs with previously unpublished data and re-analysed previously published targets with updated data reduction to determine their sizes and geometric albedos as well as beaming factors when data quality allows. We have combined these samples with classical TNOs with radiometric results in the literature for the analysis of sample properties of a total of 44 objects. We find a median geometric albedo for cold classical TNOs of 0.14-0.07+0.09 and for dynamically hot classical TNOs, excluding the Haumea family and dwarf planets, 0.085 -0.045+0.084. We have determined the bulk densities of Borasisi-Pabu (2.1-1.2+2.6 g cm-3), Varda-Ilmarë (1.25-0.43+0.40 g cm-3) and 2001 QC298 (1.14-0.30+0.34 g cm-3) as well as updated previous density estimates of four targets. We have determined the slope parameter of the debiased cumulative size distribution of dynamically hot classical TNOs as q = 2.3 ± 0.1 in the diameter range 100 <D <500 km. For dynamically cold classical TNOs we determine q = 5.1 ± 1.1 in the diameter range 160 <D <280 km as the cold classical TNOs have a smaller maximum size.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA35
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume564
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

trans-Neptunian objects
Kuiper belt
albedo
planet
Neptune
planetesimal
data quality
asteroid
bulk density
inclination
planets
dwarf planets
wavelength
analysis
cold
Neptune (planet)
protoplanets
data reduction
asteroids
flux density

Keywords

  • Infrared: planetary systems
  • Kuiper belt: general
  • Methods: observational
  • Techniques: photometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

"TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region: X. analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations. / Vilenius, E.; Kiss, C.; Müller, T.; Mommert, M.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Pál, A.; Stansberry, J.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Lellouch, E.; Fornasier, S.; Delsanti, A.; Thirouin, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Perna, D.; Henry, F.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 564, A35, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vilenius, E, Kiss, C, Müller, T, Mommert, M, Santos-Sanz, P, Pál, A, Stansberry, J, Mueller, M, Peixinho, N, Lellouch, E, Fornasier, S, Delsanti, A, Thirouin, A, Ortiz, JL, Duffard, R, Perna, D & Henry, F 2014, '"TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region: X. analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 564, A35. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322416
Vilenius, E. ; Kiss, C. ; Müller, T. ; Mommert, M. ; Santos-Sanz, P. ; Pál, A. ; Stansberry, J. ; Mueller, M. ; Peixinho, N. ; Lellouch, E. ; Fornasier, S. ; Delsanti, A. ; Thirouin, A. ; Ortiz, J. L. ; Duffard, R. ; Perna, D. ; Henry, F. / "TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region: X. analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2014 ; Vol. 564.
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abstract = "Context. The Kuiper belt is formed of planetesimals which failed to grow to planets and its dynamical structure has been affected by Neptune. The classical Kuiper belt contains objects both from a low-inclination, presumably primordial, distribution and from a high-inclination dynamically excited population. Aims. Based on a sample of classical trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with observations at thermal wavelengths we determine radiometric sizes, geometric albedos and thermal beaming factors for each object as well as study sample properties of dynamically hot and cold classicals. Methods. Observations near the thermal peak of TNOs using infrared space telescopes are combined with optical magnitudes using the radiometric technique with near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We have determined three-band flux densities from Herschel/PACS observations at 70.0, 100.0 and 160.0 μm and Spitzer/MIPS at 23.68 and 71.42 μm when available. We use reexamined absolute visual magnitudes from the literature and ground based programs in support of Herschel observations. Results. We have analysed 18 classical TNOs with previously unpublished data and re-analysed previously published targets with updated data reduction to determine their sizes and geometric albedos as well as beaming factors when data quality allows. We have combined these samples with classical TNOs with radiometric results in the literature for the analysis of sample properties of a total of 44 objects. We find a median geometric albedo for cold classical TNOs of 0.14-0.07+0.09 and for dynamically hot classical TNOs, excluding the Haumea family and dwarf planets, 0.085 -0.045+0.084. We have determined the bulk densities of Borasisi-Pabu (2.1-1.2+2.6 g cm-3), Varda-Ilmar{\"e} (1.25-0.43+0.40 g cm-3) and 2001 QC298 (1.14-0.30+0.34 g cm-3) as well as updated previous density estimates of four targets. We have determined the slope parameter of the debiased cumulative size distribution of dynamically hot classical TNOs as q = 2.3 ± 0.1 in the diameter range 100 <D <500 km. For dynamically cold classical TNOs we determine q = 5.1 ± 1.1 in the diameter range 160 <D <280 km as the cold classical TNOs have a smaller maximum size.",
keywords = "Infrared: planetary systems, Kuiper belt: general, Methods: observational, Techniques: photometric",
author = "E. Vilenius and C. Kiss and T. M{\"u}ller and M. Mommert and P. Santos-Sanz and A. P{\'a}l and J. Stansberry and M. Mueller and N. Peixinho and E. Lellouch and S. Fornasier and A. Delsanti and A. Thirouin and Ortiz, {J. L.} and R. Duffard and D. Perna and F. Henry",
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T2 - A survey of the trans-Neptunian region: X. analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations

AU - Vilenius, E.

AU - Kiss, C.

AU - Müller, T.

AU - Mommert, M.

AU - Santos-Sanz, P.

AU - Pál, A.

AU - Stansberry, J.

AU - Mueller, M.

AU - Peixinho, N.

AU - Lellouch, E.

AU - Fornasier, S.

AU - Delsanti, A.

AU - Thirouin, A.

AU - Ortiz, J. L.

AU - Duffard, R.

AU - Perna, D.

AU - Henry, F.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Context. The Kuiper belt is formed of planetesimals which failed to grow to planets and its dynamical structure has been affected by Neptune. The classical Kuiper belt contains objects both from a low-inclination, presumably primordial, distribution and from a high-inclination dynamically excited population. Aims. Based on a sample of classical trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with observations at thermal wavelengths we determine radiometric sizes, geometric albedos and thermal beaming factors for each object as well as study sample properties of dynamically hot and cold classicals. Methods. Observations near the thermal peak of TNOs using infrared space telescopes are combined with optical magnitudes using the radiometric technique with near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We have determined three-band flux densities from Herschel/PACS observations at 70.0, 100.0 and 160.0 μm and Spitzer/MIPS at 23.68 and 71.42 μm when available. We use reexamined absolute visual magnitudes from the literature and ground based programs in support of Herschel observations. Results. We have analysed 18 classical TNOs with previously unpublished data and re-analysed previously published targets with updated data reduction to determine their sizes and geometric albedos as well as beaming factors when data quality allows. We have combined these samples with classical TNOs with radiometric results in the literature for the analysis of sample properties of a total of 44 objects. We find a median geometric albedo for cold classical TNOs of 0.14-0.07+0.09 and for dynamically hot classical TNOs, excluding the Haumea family and dwarf planets, 0.085 -0.045+0.084. We have determined the bulk densities of Borasisi-Pabu (2.1-1.2+2.6 g cm-3), Varda-Ilmarë (1.25-0.43+0.40 g cm-3) and 2001 QC298 (1.14-0.30+0.34 g cm-3) as well as updated previous density estimates of four targets. We have determined the slope parameter of the debiased cumulative size distribution of dynamically hot classical TNOs as q = 2.3 ± 0.1 in the diameter range 100 <D <500 km. For dynamically cold classical TNOs we determine q = 5.1 ± 1.1 in the diameter range 160 <D <280 km as the cold classical TNOs have a smaller maximum size.

AB - Context. The Kuiper belt is formed of planetesimals which failed to grow to planets and its dynamical structure has been affected by Neptune. The classical Kuiper belt contains objects both from a low-inclination, presumably primordial, distribution and from a high-inclination dynamically excited population. Aims. Based on a sample of classical trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with observations at thermal wavelengths we determine radiometric sizes, geometric albedos and thermal beaming factors for each object as well as study sample properties of dynamically hot and cold classicals. Methods. Observations near the thermal peak of TNOs using infrared space telescopes are combined with optical magnitudes using the radiometric technique with near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We have determined three-band flux densities from Herschel/PACS observations at 70.0, 100.0 and 160.0 μm and Spitzer/MIPS at 23.68 and 71.42 μm when available. We use reexamined absolute visual magnitudes from the literature and ground based programs in support of Herschel observations. Results. We have analysed 18 classical TNOs with previously unpublished data and re-analysed previously published targets with updated data reduction to determine their sizes and geometric albedos as well as beaming factors when data quality allows. We have combined these samples with classical TNOs with radiometric results in the literature for the analysis of sample properties of a total of 44 objects. We find a median geometric albedo for cold classical TNOs of 0.14-0.07+0.09 and for dynamically hot classical TNOs, excluding the Haumea family and dwarf planets, 0.085 -0.045+0.084. We have determined the bulk densities of Borasisi-Pabu (2.1-1.2+2.6 g cm-3), Varda-Ilmarë (1.25-0.43+0.40 g cm-3) and 2001 QC298 (1.14-0.30+0.34 g cm-3) as well as updated previous density estimates of four targets. We have determined the slope parameter of the debiased cumulative size distribution of dynamically hot classical TNOs as q = 2.3 ± 0.1 in the diameter range 100 <D <500 km. For dynamically cold classical TNOs we determine q = 5.1 ± 1.1 in the diameter range 160 <D <280 km as the cold classical TNOs have a smaller maximum size.

KW - Infrared: planetary systems

KW - Kuiper belt: general

KW - Methods: observational

KW - Techniques: photometric

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