Exposure of human osteoblasts to ultrafine titanium (Ti) particles has been shown to alter osteoblast gene expression. We previously reported that Ti particles can increase IL-6 release and suppress the gene expression of procollagens α1[I] and α1[III] in human osteoblasts. In this study, we now demonstrate that Ti particles can rapidly induce the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), two immediate early stress responsive chemokines important for the activation and chemotaxis of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. In MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and bone marrow derived primary osteoblasts Ti particles selectively increased the steady state levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA in a time and concentration dependent manner. The increased chemokine mRNA correlated with increased secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 protein. Actinomycin D, a potent RNA polymerase II inhibitor, blocked the Ti particle induction of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA expression, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits protein synthesis, failed to inhibit chemokine gene expression suggesting Ti particles directly target activation of chemokine gene transcription. Consistent with a transcriptional mechanism not involving new protein synthesis, we demonstrate that Ti particles induce the binding of the p65 and p50 subunits of the latent transcription factor NF-κB to the IL-8 gene promoter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Ti particles can activate transcription of the stress responsive chemokine genes IL-8 and MCP-1 in human osteoblasts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine