Homogeneous TiO2-acrylate nanocomposite with low optical scattering were prepared by UV curing. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified by carbonic acids to control the aggregation between the nanoparticles. Effects of TiO2 content on the properties of nanocomposite (transmission, refractive index, mechanical properties, internal structure) were investigated. Depending on the composition of the matrix hard materials with high refractive index or light sensitive layers for holographic recording can be obtained. The first are interesting for medical applications, the last for photonics. For example, TiO2 nanocomposite was used for in situ fabrication of holographic gratings by interference lithography. Formation of the grating samples with high diffraction efficiency (20 %) is based on the light-stimulated mass-transport processes in the polymerized layer during the recording without any additional treatments. The relief formation has been investigated by AFM measurements too. These materials are designed for applications in integrated optics, elements of optics, in nanolithography.