Creating soil conditions best suiting crop requirements used to be considered as the most important goal of tillage for centuries. This type of crop-focused tillage is largely to be blamed for the degradation of soils. The old approach has necessarily been replaced by a soil-focused tillage approach to improve damaged soils and to preserve soil quality. Tillage can have peculiar effects, as it can just as easily damage the soil as it can remedy most of the damage already caused. The importance of the protection of soil quality and of alleviating tillage-induced environmental damage has been confirmed yet again, this time by the threats imposed by global climate change. Science assumes an important role and, based on soil quality research, offers a good chance for reducing climate-induced harvest losses. Soil-and environmentally sound tillage helps carrying out the tasks of climate stress alleviation by means of soil moisture, organic material, and soil structure protection.