This paper surveys the species-specific physico-chemical parameters (basicity and lipophilicity) and related biological functions of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, liothyronine and reverse liothyronine) and their biological precursors (tyrosine, monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine). The protonation macroconstants were determined by 1H NMR-pH titrations while the microconstants were determined by a multimodal spectroscopic-deductive methodology using auxiliary derivatives of reduced complexity. Our results show that the different number and/or position of iodine are the key factors to influence the phenolate basicity. The ionization state of the phenolate site is crucial in the biosynthesis and protein binding of thyroid hormones. The role of the protonation state in the receptor binding was investigated by an in silico docking method. Microspecies of thyroid hormones were docked to the thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Our results quantitate at the molecular level how the ionization stage and the charge distribution influence the protein binding. The anionic form of the carboxyl group is essential for the protein binding, whereas the protonated form of the amino group loosens it. The protonation state of the phenolate plays a role of secondary importance in the receptor binding. The combined results of docking and microspeciation studies show that microspecies of the highest concentration at the pH of blood are not the strongest binding ones. The site-specific lipophilicity of our investigated molecules was determined with the measurement of distribution coefficients at different pH using carboxymethyl- and O-methyl-derivatives to mimic the partition of some of the individual microspecies. Correction factors were determined and introduced. Our data show that the iodinated aromatic ring system is the definitive structural element that fundamentally determines the lipophilicity of thyroid hormones, whereas the protonation state of the aliphatic part is essential in receptor binding. The membrane transport of thyroid hormones can be well interpreted in terms of the site-specific lipophilicity. At physiological pH these biomolecules are strongly amphipathic due to the lipophilic aromatic rings and hydrophilic amino acid side chains which can well be the reason why thyroid hormones cannot cross membranes by passive diffusion and they even become constituents of biological membranes. The site-specific physico-chemical characterization of the thyroid hormones is of fundamental importance to understand their (patho) physiological behavior and also, to influence the therapeutic properties of their drug candidate derivatives at the molecular level.
|Translated title of the contribution||[Thyroid hormones and their precursors. II. Species-specific properties].|
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science