This paper and the following one (see the next issue of Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica) survey the biological roles and the related site-specific physico-chemical parameters (basicity and lipophilicity) of the presently known thyroid hormones (thyroxine, liothyronine and reverse liothyronine) and their biological precursors (monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine). Here the literature of the thyroid hormone biochemistry, biosynthesis, plasma- and membrane transport is summarized, focusing on the pH-dependent processes. Biosyntheses of the thyroid hormones take place by oxidative coupling of two iodotyrosine residues catalyzed by thyreoperoxidase in thyreoglobulin. The protonation state of the precursors, especially that of the phenolic OH is crucial for the biosynthesis, since anionic iodotyrosine residues can only be coupled in the thyroid hormone biosyntheses. In the blood more than 99% of the circulating thyroid hormone is bound to plasma proteins among which the thyroxine-binding globulin and transthyretin are crucial. The amphiphilic character of the hormones is assumed to be the reason why their membrane transport is an energy-dependent, transport-mediated process, in which the organic anion transporter family, mainly OATP1C1, and the amino acid transporters, such as MCT8 play important roles. Liothyronine is the biologically active hormone; it binds the thyroid hormone receptor, a type of nuclear receptor. There are two major thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, alfa (TRalpha) and beta (TRbeta). The activation of the TRalpha is associated with modifications in cardiac behavior, while activation of the TRbeta is associated with increasing metabolic rates, resulting in weight loss and reduction of blood plasma lipid levels. The affinity of the thyroid hormones for different proteins depends on the ionization state of the ligands. The site-specific physico-chemical characterization of the thyroid hormones is of fundamental importance to understand their (patho)physiological behavior and also, to influence their therapeutic properties at the molecular level.
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science