Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as “natural” and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivotal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS. It is, therefore, obvious that the mechanisms through which these hormones exert their effects are pleiotropic and include both intra- and intercellular actions. These hormonal mechanisms are versatile, and the experimental investigation of simultaneous hormone-induced mechanisms is technically challenging. In addition, the normal physiological settings of metabolic parameters depend on a plethora of interactions of the steroid hormones. In this review, we discuss conceptual and experimental aspects of the gonadal and thyroid hormones as they relate to in vitro models of the cerebellum.
- Neuronal and glial culture
- Thyrod hormone
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems