Pregnant women are prone to iodine deficiency due to the increased need for iodine during gestation. Progress has recently occurred in establishing serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as an iodine status biomarker, but there is no accepted reference range for iodine sufficiency during pregnancy. An observational study was conducted in 164 pregnant women. At week 16 of gestation urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum Tg, and thyroid functions were measured, and information on the type of iodine supplementation and smoking were recorded. The parameters of those who started iodine supplementation (≥150 μg/day) at least 4 weeks before pregnancy (n = 27), who started at the detection of pregnancy (n = 51), and who had no iodine supplementation (n = 74) were compared. Sufficient iodine supply was found in the studied population based on median UIC (162 μg/L). Iodine supplementation ≥150 μg/day resulted in higher median UIC regardless of its duration (nonusers: 130 μg/L vs. prepregnancy iodine starters: 240 μg/L, and pregnancy iodine starters: 205 μg/L, p <.001, and p =.023, respectively). Median Tg value of pregnancy starters was identical to that of nonusers (14.5 vs. 14.6 μg/L), whereas prepregnancy starters had lower median Tg (9.1 μg/L, p =.018). Serum Tg concentration at week 16 of pregnancy showed negative relationship (p =.010) with duration of iodine supplementation and positive relationship (p =.008) with smoking, a known interfering factor of iodine metabolism, by multiple regression analysis. Serum Tg at week 16 of pregnancy may be a promising biomarker of preconceptual and first trimester maternal iodine status, the critical early phase of foetal brain development.
- iodine status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health