Three Dimensional Intruder Closest Point of Approach Estimation Based-on Monocular Image Parameters in Aircraft Sense and Avoid: Motto: ’Almost Everything from Almost Nothing’

Peter Bauer, Antal Hiba, Jozsef Bokor, Akos Zarandy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


The paper deals with monocular image-based sense and avoid assuming constant aircraft velocities and straight flight paths. From very limited two dimensional image information it finally characterizes the whole three dimensional collision situation by estimating the time to closest point of approach, the horizontal relative distance and its direction and the vertical relative distance also. The distances are relative to the intruder aircraft horizontal and vertical sizes. The overall estimated relative distance is the closest between the two aircraft in three dimension. So finally, every important information can be extracted to be used in a collision decision. The applicability of the developed method is presented in software-in-the-loop simulation test runs. Several intruder size and speed values are considered together with trajectories covering the whole three dimensional space. The horizontal intruder flight directions relative to the own aircraft cover 360 and the intruder can come from below ar above also. Detailed evaluation and discussion of the results is also included. Finally, the missed detection rate results to be superior (below 3% in every test scenario) though the false alarm rate results a bit high between 7–14%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-276
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 15 2019



  • Closest point of approach
  • Intruder direction
  • Monocular camera
  • Sense and avoid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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