The Helmholtz free energy, energy, and entropy of mixing of eight different models of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with four widely used water models are calculated at 298 K over the entire composition range by means of thermodynamic integration along a suitably chosen thermodynamic path, and compared with experimental data. All 32 model combinations considered are able to reproduce the experimental values rather well, within RT (free energy and energy) and R (entropy) at any composition, and quite often the deviation from the experimental data is even smaller, being in the order of the uncertainty of the calculated free energy or energy, and entropy values of 0.1 kJ/mol and 0.1 J/(mol K), respectively. On the other hand, none of the model combinations considered can accurately reproduce all three experimental functions simultaneously. Furthermore, the fact that the entropy of mixing changes sign with increasing DMSO mole fraction is only reproduced by a handful of model pairs. Model combinations that (i) give the best reproduction of the experimental free energy, while still reasonably well reproducing the experimental energy and entropy of mixing, and (ii) that give the best reproduction of the experimental energy and entropy, while still reasonably well reproducing the experimental free energy of mixing, are identified.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry