Non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables introduces a natural hierarchical arrangement of evolution equations. Three examples are shown: a hierarchy of linear constitutive equations in thermodynamic rheology with a single internal variable, a hierarchy of wave equations in the theory of generalized continua with dual internal variables, and a hierarchical arrangement of the Fourier equation in the theory of heat conduction with current multipliers.
- Internal variables
- Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
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