The thermal behaviour of fully and partially expanded kaolinites intercalated with formamide has been investigated in nitrogen atmosphere under quasi-isothermal heating conditions at a constant, pre-set decomposition rate of 0.20 mg min-1. With this technique it is possible to distinguish between loosely bonded (surface bonded) and strongly bonded (intercalated) formamide. Loosely bonded formamide is liberated in an equilibrium reaction under quasi-isothermal conditions at 118°C, while the strongly bonded (intercalated) portion is lost in an equilibrium, but non-isothermal process between 130 and 200°C. The presence of water intercalation solution can influence the amount of adsorbed formamide, but has no effect on the amount of the intercalated reagent. When the kaolinite is fully expanded, the amount of formamide hydrogen bonded to the inner surface of the mineral is 0.25 mol formamide/mol inner surface OH group. While the amount of surface bonded formamide is decreasing with time, no change can be observed in the amount of the intercalated reagent. With this technique the mass loss stages belonging to adsorbed and intercalated formamide can be resolved thereby providing a complex containing only one type of bonded (intercalated) formamide.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry