The twisted gastrulation family of proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, comprise the TIC superfamily of cysteine rich secreted factors

P. Vilmos, K. Gaudenz, Z. Hegedűs, J. L. Marsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims - To analyse the similarities between the Twisted gastrulation (TSG) proteins known to date; in addition, to determine phylogenetic relations among the TSG proteins, and between the TSGs and other protein families - the CCN (for example, CCN2 (CTGF), CCN1 (CYR61), and CCN3 (NOV)) and IGFBP (insulin-like growth factor binding protein) families. Methods - TBLASTN and FASTA3 were used to identify new tsg genes and relatives of the TSG family. The sequences were aligned with Clusta1W. The predictions of sites for signal peptide cleavage, post-translational modifications, and putative protein domains were carried out with software available at various databases. Unrooted phylogenetic trees were calculated using the UPGMA method. Results - Several tsg genes from vertebrates and invertebrates were compared. Alignment of protein sequences revealed a highly conserved family of TSG proteins present in both vertebrates and invertebrates, whereas the slightly less well conserved IGFBP and CCN proteins are apparently present only in vertebrates. The TSG proteins display strong homology among themselves and they are composed of a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus followed by a cysteine rich (CR) region, a conserved domain devoid of cysteines, a variable midregion, and a C-terminal CR region. The most striking similarity between the TSGs and the IGFBP and CCN proteins occurs in the N-terminal conserved cysteine rich domain and the characteristic 5′ cysteine rich domain(s), spacer region, and 3′ cysteine rich domain structure. Conclusion - The family of highly conserved TSG proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, constitute an emerging multigene superfamily of secreted cysteine rich factors. The TSG branch of the superfamily appears to predate the others because it is present in all species examined, whereas the CCN and IGFBP genes are found only in vertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-323
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Pathology
Volume54
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
Gastrulation
Cysteine
Vertebrates
Proteins
Invertebrates
Protein Sorting Signals
CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins
Genes
Sequence Alignment
Post Translational Protein Processing
Prednisolone
Software
Databases

Keywords

  • CCN
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein
  • Tsg
  • Twisted gastrulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

@article{b58cdddfaa774e97a494397212091fbf,
title = "The twisted gastrulation family of proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, comprise the TIC superfamily of cysteine rich secreted factors",
abstract = "Aims - To analyse the similarities between the Twisted gastrulation (TSG) proteins known to date; in addition, to determine phylogenetic relations among the TSG proteins, and between the TSGs and other protein families - the CCN (for example, CCN2 (CTGF), CCN1 (CYR61), and CCN3 (NOV)) and IGFBP (insulin-like growth factor binding protein) families. Methods - TBLASTN and FASTA3 were used to identify new tsg genes and relatives of the TSG family. The sequences were aligned with Clusta1W. The predictions of sites for signal peptide cleavage, post-translational modifications, and putative protein domains were carried out with software available at various databases. Unrooted phylogenetic trees were calculated using the UPGMA method. Results - Several tsg genes from vertebrates and invertebrates were compared. Alignment of protein sequences revealed a highly conserved family of TSG proteins present in both vertebrates and invertebrates, whereas the slightly less well conserved IGFBP and CCN proteins are apparently present only in vertebrates. The TSG proteins display strong homology among themselves and they are composed of a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus followed by a cysteine rich (CR) region, a conserved domain devoid of cysteines, a variable midregion, and a C-terminal CR region. The most striking similarity between the TSGs and the IGFBP and CCN proteins occurs in the N-terminal conserved cysteine rich domain and the characteristic 5′ cysteine rich domain(s), spacer region, and 3′ cysteine rich domain structure. Conclusion - The family of highly conserved TSG proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, constitute an emerging multigene superfamily of secreted cysteine rich factors. The TSG branch of the superfamily appears to predate the others because it is present in all species examined, whereas the CCN and IGFBP genes are found only in vertebrates.",
keywords = "CCN, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein, Tsg, Twisted gastrulation",
author = "P. Vilmos and K. Gaudenz and Z. Hegedűs and Marsh, {J. L.}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1136/mp.54.5.317",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "317--323",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Pathology - Clinical Molecular Pathology",
issn = "0021-9746",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The twisted gastrulation family of proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, comprise the TIC superfamily of cysteine rich secreted factors

AU - Vilmos, P.

AU - Gaudenz, K.

AU - Hegedűs, Z.

AU - Marsh, J. L.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Aims - To analyse the similarities between the Twisted gastrulation (TSG) proteins known to date; in addition, to determine phylogenetic relations among the TSG proteins, and between the TSGs and other protein families - the CCN (for example, CCN2 (CTGF), CCN1 (CYR61), and CCN3 (NOV)) and IGFBP (insulin-like growth factor binding protein) families. Methods - TBLASTN and FASTA3 were used to identify new tsg genes and relatives of the TSG family. The sequences were aligned with Clusta1W. The predictions of sites for signal peptide cleavage, post-translational modifications, and putative protein domains were carried out with software available at various databases. Unrooted phylogenetic trees were calculated using the UPGMA method. Results - Several tsg genes from vertebrates and invertebrates were compared. Alignment of protein sequences revealed a highly conserved family of TSG proteins present in both vertebrates and invertebrates, whereas the slightly less well conserved IGFBP and CCN proteins are apparently present only in vertebrates. The TSG proteins display strong homology among themselves and they are composed of a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus followed by a cysteine rich (CR) region, a conserved domain devoid of cysteines, a variable midregion, and a C-terminal CR region. The most striking similarity between the TSGs and the IGFBP and CCN proteins occurs in the N-terminal conserved cysteine rich domain and the characteristic 5′ cysteine rich domain(s), spacer region, and 3′ cysteine rich domain structure. Conclusion - The family of highly conserved TSG proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, constitute an emerging multigene superfamily of secreted cysteine rich factors. The TSG branch of the superfamily appears to predate the others because it is present in all species examined, whereas the CCN and IGFBP genes are found only in vertebrates.

AB - Aims - To analyse the similarities between the Twisted gastrulation (TSG) proteins known to date; in addition, to determine phylogenetic relations among the TSG proteins, and between the TSGs and other protein families - the CCN (for example, CCN2 (CTGF), CCN1 (CYR61), and CCN3 (NOV)) and IGFBP (insulin-like growth factor binding protein) families. Methods - TBLASTN and FASTA3 were used to identify new tsg genes and relatives of the TSG family. The sequences were aligned with Clusta1W. The predictions of sites for signal peptide cleavage, post-translational modifications, and putative protein domains were carried out with software available at various databases. Unrooted phylogenetic trees were calculated using the UPGMA method. Results - Several tsg genes from vertebrates and invertebrates were compared. Alignment of protein sequences revealed a highly conserved family of TSG proteins present in both vertebrates and invertebrates, whereas the slightly less well conserved IGFBP and CCN proteins are apparently present only in vertebrates. The TSG proteins display strong homology among themselves and they are composed of a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus followed by a cysteine rich (CR) region, a conserved domain devoid of cysteines, a variable midregion, and a C-terminal CR region. The most striking similarity between the TSGs and the IGFBP and CCN proteins occurs in the N-terminal conserved cysteine rich domain and the characteristic 5′ cysteine rich domain(s), spacer region, and 3′ cysteine rich domain structure. Conclusion - The family of highly conserved TSG proteins, together with the IGFBP and CCN families, constitute an emerging multigene superfamily of secreted cysteine rich factors. The TSG branch of the superfamily appears to predate the others because it is present in all species examined, whereas the CCN and IGFBP genes are found only in vertebrates.

KW - CCN

KW - Insulin-like growth factor binding protein

KW - Tsg

KW - Twisted gastrulation

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U2 - 10.1136/mp.54.5.317

DO - 10.1136/mp.54.5.317

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 317

EP - 323

JO - Journal of Clinical Pathology - Clinical Molecular Pathology

JF - Journal of Clinical Pathology - Clinical Molecular Pathology

SN - 0021-9746

IS - 5

ER -