The TRIGR trial: Testing the potential link between weaning diet and type 1 diabetes

Hans K. Åkerblom, Mikael Knip, Dorothy Becker, Hans Michael Dosch, John Dupré, Jorma Ilonen, Jeffrey P. Kriseher, M. Maria Craig, Patricia Crock, Neville Howard, Lise Belanger, Tracey Bridger, George Carson, Cheril Clarson, Elizabeth Cummings, Denis Daneman, Hans Michael Dosch, John Dupré, William Fraser, Rose GirgisJahanara Hasan, Celine Huot, Margaret Lawson, Laurent Legault, Daniel Metzger, James Popkin, Susan Sanderson, Koravangattu Sankaran, David Stephure, Shayne Taback, Alan White, Ludmila Brazdova, Hana Krauseova, Jaroslav Skvor, Zdenka Tomsikova, Jan Vavrinec, Jitrenka Venhacova, Anne Ormisson, Mall Anne Riikjärv, Hans K. Åkerblom, Hannu Haavisto, Anu Maaria Hämäläinen, Vilho Hiilesmaa, Carita Holm, Heikki Hyöty, Jorma Ilonen, Anna Liisa Järvenpää, Mikael Knip, Jorma Komulainen, Paavo Korpela, Pentti Lautala, Kaija Lindström, Raisa Lounamaa, Päivi Nykänen, Kari Ranta, Martin Renlund, Antti Reunanen, Erkki Savilahti, Ilkka Sipilä, Leena Taittonen, Timo Talvitie, Päivi Tapanainen, Kari Teramo, Outi Vaarala, Ritva Virransalo, Suvi Virtanen, Thomas Danne, Olga Kordonouri, László Madácsy, Paolo Pozzilli, Marco Songini, Crine De Beaufort, Jan Bruining, Jerzy Bodalski, Hanna Dziatkowiak, Przemyslawa Jarosz-Chobot, Renata Wasikowa, Jan Wilczyński, Luis Castano, Luis Ortiz Quintana, Luis Felipe Pallardo, Manuel Serrano-Rios, Jan Åman, Hans Edenwall, Hans Fors, Ragnar Hanas, Calle Johansson, Bengt Lindblad, Agne Lindh, Johnny Ludvigsson, Nils Östen Nilsson, Maria Nordwall, Eugen Schoenle, Dorothy Becker, Uday Devaskar, Teresa Frazer, Robin Goland, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Jerry P. Palmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


In the following we briefly update the information on the study which testa our hypothesized role of the weaning diet in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and describe the ongoing Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR). The study will determine whether weaning to a formula in which cow milk (CM) proteins (the most common intact foreign weaning protein in humans) have been extensively hydrolyzed, reduces risk for T1D in genetically susceptible children. This double blind, randomized controlled trial in subjects with affected first-degree relatives and risk-associated HLA genotypes, requires 2032 eligible infants: 4516 newbom babies need to be recruited, 45% of which are predicted to have eligible HLA geaotypes. An international, multicenter consortium has been established comprising 78 centers in 15 countries. By the end of November 2005 we had achieved 81% of the recruitment target with 4396 infanta registered, 3896 randomized and 1644 eligible infanta entered into the intervention. The 6-8 month intervention is designed to compare the effects of either hydrolyzed casein or standard CM based weaning formula. Duration of breasffeeding is at the mothers' discretion. All subjects are observed for 10 years with measurements of serological markers of intact CM exposure, diabetes predictive antoantibodies (endpoint at age 6 years) and progression to clinical T1D (endpoint at age 10 years). If the intervention is effective in delaying autoimmunity or its progression to diabetes, this first ever primary prevention study of T1D, will have far-reaching impact for families with members at risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-263
Number of pages13
JournalImmunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2007


  • Cow milk
  • DQB1
  • HLA Genotyping
  • Non-obese diabetic mice
  • TRIGR pilot study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology

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  • Cite this

    Åkerblom, H. K., Knip, M., Becker, D., Dosch, H. M., Dupré, J., Ilonen, J., Kriseher, J. P., Craig, M. M., Crock, P., Howard, N., Belanger, L., Bridger, T., Carson, G., Clarson, C., Cummings, E., Daneman, D., Dosch, H. M., Dupré, J., Fraser, W., ... Palmer, J. P. (2007). The TRIGR trial: Testing the potential link between weaning diet and type 1 diabetes. Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 7(3), 251-263.