The “Three amigos” lurking behind type 1 diabetes: Hygiene, gut microbiota and viruses

Odin Andreas Johan Jakobsen, L. Szereday

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is on the rise and yet, despite decades of research, the exact ethology of the disease still remains a mystery. The autoimmune reaction, which ultimately leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, causing insulin deficiency and T1D, is a result of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Precisely, what are these environmental factors? Current popular opinion implies these pathogens, such as viruses, especially human enteroviruses, are a triggering factor. On the other hand, the hygiene hypotheses states in which the increase of autoimmune diseases, such as T1D, can, in fact, be explained by the decrease of infections, and infectious agents, more like viruses, actually serve as a defense mechanism, therefore, protect us from developing certain autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the relationship between the gut microbiota and autoimmune diseases is currently gaining increased interest including relative research now demonstrating how the guts immune system plays a crucial role in the development of autoimmune diseases. This literature review aims to evaluate these three popular suspects: Viral infections, hygiene and gut microbiota, in relation to their potential triggering effect on T1D and their close relationship to one another.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-438
Number of pages18
JournalActa Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Volume65
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018

Fingerprint

Hygiene
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Autoimmune Diseases
Viruses
Hygiene Hypothesis
Ethology
Hand Hygiene
Enterovirus
Insulin-Secreting Cells
Virus Diseases
Defense Mechanisms
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Research
Immune System
Insulin
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Incidence
Infection

Keywords

  • Environment
  • Hygiene hypothesis
  • Microbiota
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

The “Three amigos” lurking behind type 1 diabetes : Hygiene, gut microbiota and viruses. / Jakobsen, Odin Andreas Johan; Szereday, L.

In: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, Vol. 65, No. 4, 01.12.2018, p. 421-438.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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