The structure of gallium in strongly alkaline, highly concentrated Gallate solutions-a Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopic study

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Abstract

Highly concentrated alkaline gallate solutions with 0.23 ≤ [Ga(III)]T ≤ 2.32 molṡdm-3 and 1 ≤ [NaOH] T ≤ 15 molṡdm-3 have been prepared and investigated by Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. Both the Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectra are consistent with the presence of only one Ga-bearing species in these solutions, the tetrahedral hydroxocomplex, Ga(OH) 4 - . Contact ion pairs were found to cause variations in the Raman and 71Ga-NMR parameters that are at the edge of detectability. Other species that have been claimed to exist in the literature, like higher hydroxo complexes (i.e., Ga(OH) 6 3- ) or the μ-oxo-bridged dimer (i.e., (OH)3Ga-O-(OH) 3 2- ), were not detected by these spectroscopic techniques. If such solution species exist at all, their concentrations are below the detection limit of Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of gallium appears to be very similar to that of aluminium under identical conditions, except that the dimeric species detected in aluminate solutions is undetectable in analogous gallates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1411-1418
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Solution Chemistry
Volume37
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008

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gallates
Gallium
gallium
Nuclear magnetic resonance
nuclear magnetic resonance
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Bearings (structural)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Aluminum
Dimers
spectroscopy
Limit of Detection
dimers
Ions
aluminum
causes
ions

Keywords

  • Ga-NMR spectroscopy
  • Bayer liquors
  • Concentrated electrolyte solutions
  • Ga(OH)
  • Gallium
  • Hydroxo complexes
  • Ion pairs
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Solution structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "The structure of gallium in strongly alkaline, highly concentrated Gallate solutions-a Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopic study",
abstract = "Highly concentrated alkaline gallate solutions with 0.23 ≤ [Ga(III)]T ≤ 2.32 molṡdm-3 and 1 ≤ [NaOH] T ≤ 15 molṡdm-3 have been prepared and investigated by Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. Both the Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectra are consistent with the presence of only one Ga-bearing species in these solutions, the tetrahedral hydroxocomplex, Ga(OH) 4 - . Contact ion pairs were found to cause variations in the Raman and 71Ga-NMR parameters that are at the edge of detectability. Other species that have been claimed to exist in the literature, like higher hydroxo complexes (i.e., Ga(OH) 6 3- ) or the μ-oxo-bridged dimer (i.e., (OH)3Ga-O-(OH) 3 2- ), were not detected by these spectroscopic techniques. If such solution species exist at all, their concentrations are below the detection limit of Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of gallium appears to be very similar to that of aluminium under identical conditions, except that the dimeric species detected in aluminate solutions is undetectable in analogous gallates.",
keywords = "Ga-NMR spectroscopy, Bayer liquors, Concentrated electrolyte solutions, Ga(OH), Gallium, Hydroxo complexes, Ion pairs, Raman spectroscopy, Solution structure",
author = "P. Sipos and T. Megyes and O. Berkesi",
year = "2008",
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language = "English",
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pages = "1411--1418",
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T1 - The structure of gallium in strongly alkaline, highly concentrated Gallate solutions-a Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopic study

AU - Sipos, P.

AU - Megyes, T.

AU - Berkesi, O.

PY - 2008/10

Y1 - 2008/10

N2 - Highly concentrated alkaline gallate solutions with 0.23 ≤ [Ga(III)]T ≤ 2.32 molṡdm-3 and 1 ≤ [NaOH] T ≤ 15 molṡdm-3 have been prepared and investigated by Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. Both the Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectra are consistent with the presence of only one Ga-bearing species in these solutions, the tetrahedral hydroxocomplex, Ga(OH) 4 - . Contact ion pairs were found to cause variations in the Raman and 71Ga-NMR parameters that are at the edge of detectability. Other species that have been claimed to exist in the literature, like higher hydroxo complexes (i.e., Ga(OH) 6 3- ) or the μ-oxo-bridged dimer (i.e., (OH)3Ga-O-(OH) 3 2- ), were not detected by these spectroscopic techniques. If such solution species exist at all, their concentrations are below the detection limit of Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of gallium appears to be very similar to that of aluminium under identical conditions, except that the dimeric species detected in aluminate solutions is undetectable in analogous gallates.

AB - Highly concentrated alkaline gallate solutions with 0.23 ≤ [Ga(III)]T ≤ 2.32 molṡdm-3 and 1 ≤ [NaOH] T ≤ 15 molṡdm-3 have been prepared and investigated by Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. Both the Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectra are consistent with the presence of only one Ga-bearing species in these solutions, the tetrahedral hydroxocomplex, Ga(OH) 4 - . Contact ion pairs were found to cause variations in the Raman and 71Ga-NMR parameters that are at the edge of detectability. Other species that have been claimed to exist in the literature, like higher hydroxo complexes (i.e., Ga(OH) 6 3- ) or the μ-oxo-bridged dimer (i.e., (OH)3Ga-O-(OH) 3 2- ), were not detected by these spectroscopic techniques. If such solution species exist at all, their concentrations are below the detection limit of Raman and 71Ga-NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of gallium appears to be very similar to that of aluminium under identical conditions, except that the dimeric species detected in aluminate solutions is undetectable in analogous gallates.

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KW - Concentrated electrolyte solutions

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KW - Hydroxo complexes

KW - Ion pairs

KW - Raman spectroscopy

KW - Solution structure

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