This study involved the use of a flow circulation cell, using varying circulation rates as a room temperature process (20°C). Mössbauer and XRD analysis were conducted to ascertain whether amorphous or microcrystalline structures could be obtained at 20°C using a range of current densities. Amorphous or microcrystalline structures of Sn-Fe and Sn-Co-Fe have potentially important industrial applications for energy efficient cells, for use as high performance electrodes in lithium batteries, as environmentally acceptable corrosion resistant materials and are derived from an energy efficient environmentally friendly electrolyte process which would be acceptable as an industrial process. 57 Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer investigations supported by XRD analysis confirmed that the room temperature flow circulation cell gave rise to previously unknown non-equilibrium amorphous structures which do not occur in the corresponding thermally prepared alloys as shown in the thermal equilibrium diagrams. Mössbauer analysis shows these alloys to be both amorphous and ferromagnetic. It is shown that the flow circulation cell used at 20°C based on the environmentally friendly gluconate bath reported gives amorphous based Sn-Fe and Sn-Co-Fe alloys over a useful range of current densities facilitated by using a range of circulation rates.
- Mössbauer spectroscopy
- X-ray diffraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry