The section-Golgi impregnation procedure. 2. Immunocytochemical demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase in Golgi-impregnated neurons and in their afferent synaptic boutons in the visual cortex of the cat

P. Somogyi, T. Freund, J. Y. Wu, A. D. Smith

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Abstract

Sections of the cat's visual cortex were stained by an antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method; they were then impregnated by the section Golgi procedure5 and finally the Golgi deposit was replaced by gold. Neurons containing glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity were found in all layers of the visual cortex, without any obvious pattern of distribution. Fifteen immunoreactive neurons were also Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned, which enabled us to study the morphology and synaptic input of identified GABAergic neurons. These neurons were found to be heterogeneous both with respect to the sizes and shapes of their perikarya and the branching patterns of their dendrites. All the immunoreactive, Golgi-impregnated neurons had smooth dendrites, with only occasional protrusions. The synaptic input of glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons was studied in the electron microscope. Immunoreactive neurons received immunoreactive boutons forming symmetrical synapses on their cell bodies. The Golgi-impregnation made it possible to study the input along the dendrites of immunoreactive neurons. One of the large neurons in layer III whose soma was immunoreactive was also Golgi-impregnated: it received numerous non-immunoreactive asymmetrical synaptic contacts along its dendrites and occasional ones on its soma. The same neuron also received a few boutons forming symmetrical synaptic contacts along its Golgi-impregnated dendrites; most of these boutons were immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive boutons were also found in symmetrical synaptic contact with non-immunoreactive neurons that were Golgi-impregnated. A small pyramidal cell in layer III was shown to receive several such boutons along its somatic membrane. It is concluded that the combination of immunoperoxidase staining and Golgi impregnation is technically feasible and that it can provide new information. The present study has shown that there are many morphologically distinct kinds of aspiny GABAergic neurons in the visual cortex; that the predominant type of synaptic input to the dendrites of such neurons is from boutons forming asymmetrical synapses, but that some of the GABAergic neurons also receive a dense symmetrical synaptic input on their cell bodies, and occasional synapses along their dendrites, from the boutons of other GABAergic neurons. These findings provide a morphological basis, firstly, for a presumed powerful excitatory input to GABAergic interneurons and, secondly, for the disinhibition which has been postulated from electrophysiological studies to occur in the cat's visual cortex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475-490
Number of pages16
JournalNeuroscience
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1983

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Glutamate Decarboxylase
Presynaptic Terminals
Visual Cortex
Cats
Dendrites
Neurons
GABAergic Neurons
Synapses
Carisoprodol
Gold
Pyramidal Cells
Interneurons
Peroxidase
Immune Sera
Electrons
Staining and Labeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "The section-Golgi impregnation procedure. 2. Immunocytochemical demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase in Golgi-impregnated neurons and in their afferent synaptic boutons in the visual cortex of the cat",
abstract = "Sections of the cat's visual cortex were stained by an antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method; they were then impregnated by the section Golgi procedure5 and finally the Golgi deposit was replaced by gold. Neurons containing glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity were found in all layers of the visual cortex, without any obvious pattern of distribution. Fifteen immunoreactive neurons were also Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned, which enabled us to study the morphology and synaptic input of identified GABAergic neurons. These neurons were found to be heterogeneous both with respect to the sizes and shapes of their perikarya and the branching patterns of their dendrites. All the immunoreactive, Golgi-impregnated neurons had smooth dendrites, with only occasional protrusions. The synaptic input of glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons was studied in the electron microscope. Immunoreactive neurons received immunoreactive boutons forming symmetrical synapses on their cell bodies. The Golgi-impregnation made it possible to study the input along the dendrites of immunoreactive neurons. One of the large neurons in layer III whose soma was immunoreactive was also Golgi-impregnated: it received numerous non-immunoreactive asymmetrical synaptic contacts along its dendrites and occasional ones on its soma. The same neuron also received a few boutons forming symmetrical synaptic contacts along its Golgi-impregnated dendrites; most of these boutons were immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive boutons were also found in symmetrical synaptic contact with non-immunoreactive neurons that were Golgi-impregnated. A small pyramidal cell in layer III was shown to receive several such boutons along its somatic membrane. It is concluded that the combination of immunoperoxidase staining and Golgi impregnation is technically feasible and that it can provide new information. The present study has shown that there are many morphologically distinct kinds of aspiny GABAergic neurons in the visual cortex; that the predominant type of synaptic input to the dendrites of such neurons is from boutons forming asymmetrical synapses, but that some of the GABAergic neurons also receive a dense symmetrical synaptic input on their cell bodies, and occasional synapses along their dendrites, from the boutons of other GABAergic neurons. These findings provide a morphological basis, firstly, for a presumed powerful excitatory input to GABAergic interneurons and, secondly, for the disinhibition which has been postulated from electrophysiological studies to occur in the cat's visual cortex.",
author = "P. Somogyi and T. Freund and Wu, {J. Y.} and Smith, {A. D.}",
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T1 - The section-Golgi impregnation procedure. 2. Immunocytochemical demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase in Golgi-impregnated neurons and in their afferent synaptic boutons in the visual cortex of the cat

AU - Somogyi, P.

AU - Freund, T.

AU - Wu, J. Y.

AU - Smith, A. D.

PY - 1983

Y1 - 1983

N2 - Sections of the cat's visual cortex were stained by an antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method; they were then impregnated by the section Golgi procedure5 and finally the Golgi deposit was replaced by gold. Neurons containing glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity were found in all layers of the visual cortex, without any obvious pattern of distribution. Fifteen immunoreactive neurons were also Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned, which enabled us to study the morphology and synaptic input of identified GABAergic neurons. These neurons were found to be heterogeneous both with respect to the sizes and shapes of their perikarya and the branching patterns of their dendrites. All the immunoreactive, Golgi-impregnated neurons had smooth dendrites, with only occasional protrusions. The synaptic input of glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons was studied in the electron microscope. Immunoreactive neurons received immunoreactive boutons forming symmetrical synapses on their cell bodies. The Golgi-impregnation made it possible to study the input along the dendrites of immunoreactive neurons. One of the large neurons in layer III whose soma was immunoreactive was also Golgi-impregnated: it received numerous non-immunoreactive asymmetrical synaptic contacts along its dendrites and occasional ones on its soma. The same neuron also received a few boutons forming symmetrical synaptic contacts along its Golgi-impregnated dendrites; most of these boutons were immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive boutons were also found in symmetrical synaptic contact with non-immunoreactive neurons that were Golgi-impregnated. A small pyramidal cell in layer III was shown to receive several such boutons along its somatic membrane. It is concluded that the combination of immunoperoxidase staining and Golgi impregnation is technically feasible and that it can provide new information. The present study has shown that there are many morphologically distinct kinds of aspiny GABAergic neurons in the visual cortex; that the predominant type of synaptic input to the dendrites of such neurons is from boutons forming asymmetrical synapses, but that some of the GABAergic neurons also receive a dense symmetrical synaptic input on their cell bodies, and occasional synapses along their dendrites, from the boutons of other GABAergic neurons. These findings provide a morphological basis, firstly, for a presumed powerful excitatory input to GABAergic interneurons and, secondly, for the disinhibition which has been postulated from electrophysiological studies to occur in the cat's visual cortex.

AB - Sections of the cat's visual cortex were stained by an antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method; they were then impregnated by the section Golgi procedure5 and finally the Golgi deposit was replaced by gold. Neurons containing glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity were found in all layers of the visual cortex, without any obvious pattern of distribution. Fifteen immunoreactive neurons were also Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned, which enabled us to study the morphology and synaptic input of identified GABAergic neurons. These neurons were found to be heterogeneous both with respect to the sizes and shapes of their perikarya and the branching patterns of their dendrites. All the immunoreactive, Golgi-impregnated neurons had smooth dendrites, with only occasional protrusions. The synaptic input of glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons was studied in the electron microscope. Immunoreactive neurons received immunoreactive boutons forming symmetrical synapses on their cell bodies. The Golgi-impregnation made it possible to study the input along the dendrites of immunoreactive neurons. One of the large neurons in layer III whose soma was immunoreactive was also Golgi-impregnated: it received numerous non-immunoreactive asymmetrical synaptic contacts along its dendrites and occasional ones on its soma. The same neuron also received a few boutons forming symmetrical synaptic contacts along its Golgi-impregnated dendrites; most of these boutons were immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive boutons were also found in symmetrical synaptic contact with non-immunoreactive neurons that were Golgi-impregnated. A small pyramidal cell in layer III was shown to receive several such boutons along its somatic membrane. It is concluded that the combination of immunoperoxidase staining and Golgi impregnation is technically feasible and that it can provide new information. The present study has shown that there are many morphologically distinct kinds of aspiny GABAergic neurons in the visual cortex; that the predominant type of synaptic input to the dendrites of such neurons is from boutons forming asymmetrical synapses, but that some of the GABAergic neurons also receive a dense symmetrical synaptic input on their cell bodies, and occasional synapses along their dendrites, from the boutons of other GABAergic neurons. These findings provide a morphological basis, firstly, for a presumed powerful excitatory input to GABAergic interneurons and, secondly, for the disinhibition which has been postulated from electrophysiological studies to occur in the cat's visual cortex.

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