Our health is highly determined by the diverse microbial community living within our body and upon our skin. Balance among the members of the commensal microbiota is essential for the preservation of health. New generation sequencing is a rapid, sensitive method for determining the whole microbiome without prior hypothesis and also gives information on the resistance and virulence status. Application of this method can help to identify the pathogens contributing to different diseases, and also the protective bacteria inhibiting their growth. Detecting the changes of the microbiome helps to identify new therapeutic targets and establish targeted antibiotic therapy. Broad-spectrum antibiotics also act against the beneficial members of the microbial flora, which may lead to the development of recurrent or chronic disease. Ear, nose and throat infections are the most common infective diseases in humans and the leading cause for antibiotic prescription worldwide. In recent years, many studies using molecular biology methods were performed examining the microbiome of healthy humans and in otorhinolaryngologic diseases. In the present work, the authors review the changes of the microbiological communities in the healthy state and in various pathologic states in the anatomic regions of the ear, nose and throat. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(39): 1533-1541.
ASJC Scopus subject areas