Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the leading inherited cause of perinatal and infant mortality. CHD refers to structural anomalies of the heart and blood vessels that arise during cardiac development and represents a broad spectrum of malformations, including septal and valve defects, lesions affecting the outflow tract and ventricules. Advanced treatment strategies have greatly improved life expectancy and led to expanded population of adult patients with CHD. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying CHDs is essential to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients. The etiology of CHD is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the disease. In addition to the mutations affecting genomic DNA, epigenetic changes are being increasingly acknowledged as key factors in the development and progression of CHDs. The posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRs) controls the highly complex multi-cell lineage process of cardiac tissue formation. In recent years, multiplex experimental models have provided evidence that changes in expression levels of miRs are associated with human cardiovascular disease, including CHD. The newly described correlations between miRs and heart development suggest the potential importance of miRs as diagnostic markers in human cardiovascular diseases. In the future, more intensive research is likely to be carried out to clarify their contribution to personalized management and treatment of CHD patients. In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge on the causative role of miRs in cardiac development and CHDs.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Electronic Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2019|
- Congenital heart disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical