Intestinal alkaline phosphatase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal mucosal barrier integrity with the detoxification capacity of lipopolysaccharide, the ligand of Toll-like receptor 4. The inappropriate immune responses and the damage of the mucosal barrier may contribute to the initiation of inflammatory bowel and celiac diseases. In the inflamed colonic mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease and in the duodenal mucosa of newly diagnosed children with celiac disease, the decreased intestinal alkaline phosphatase and increased Toll-like receptor 4 protein expression may generate enhanced lipopolysaccharide activity, which may strengthen tissue damaging processes. The enhancement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in an animal model of colitis and in therapy resistant, adult patients with ulcerative colitis reduced the symptoms of intestinal inflammation. In accordance with these results, the targeted intestinal administration of the enzyme in the two examined disorders may be a supplemental therapeutic option in the future.
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