The natural (intrinsic) ageing of the skin is enhanced by environmental factors (extrinsic ageing). One of the most important exogenous factors is the solar UV exposure, which results in photoageing. Besides this, epidemiological and experimental data show a rapid increase in the incidence of human skin cancers, which is also in relation to the increased sunlight exposure of the skin. In the background of these processes there are cell biological effects, photochemical reactions, membrane receptor changes, lipid- and protein modifications, DNA-damage induced by UV. The qualities and quantities of them are wavelength dependent. The UVB photons are absorbed mostly by the DNA of the epidermal keratinocytes, therefore this spectrum is more relevant for photocarcinogenesis. The effect of UVA-irradiation is mainly manifested in the induction of free radicals, which have not only DNA-damaging, but also immunomodulating effect, which also can influence on tumour development. Furthermore, the free radicals cause dermal connective tissue damage as well via activating transcription factors, inducing matrix metalloproteinases, diminishing the procollagen I and fibrillin-1 synthesis. These processes are augmented by mitochondrial DNA mutations, protein oxidation, apoptosis induction. Therefore the enzymes neutralising free radicals and antioxidant molecules, respectively, have an important role in the defence mechanisms. In the therapy of photoageing the local retinoids lived up to expectations, but the clinical effectiveness of antioxidant vitamins is lower than expected. The most important factor in the prevention of the photoageing and photocarcinogenesis is the sun protection at present.
|Translated title of the contribution||The role of free radicals in the UV-induced skin damage. Photoageing|
|Number of pages||5|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 23 2006|
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