The red deer Cervus elaphus genome CerEla1.0: sequencing, annotating, genes, and chromosomes

Nóra Bana, Anna Nyiri, János Nagy, Krisztián Frank, Tibor Nagy, Viktor Stéger, Mátyás Schiller, Péter Lakatos, László Sugár, Péter Horn, Endre Barta, László Orosz

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19 Citations (Scopus)


We present here the de novo genome assembly CerEla1.0 for the red deer, Cervus elaphus, an emblematic member of the natural megafauna of the Northern Hemisphere. Humans spread the species in the South. Today, the red deer is also a farm-bred animal and is becoming a model animal in biomedical and population studies. Stag DNA was sequenced at 74× coverage by Illumina technology. The ALLPATHS-LG assembly of the reads resulted in 34.7 × 103 scaffolds, 26.1 × 103 of which were utilized in Cer.Ela1.0. The assembly spans 3.4 Gbp. For building the red deer pseudochromosomes, a pre-established genetic map was used for main anchor points. A nearly complete co-linearity was found between the mapmarker sequences of the deer genetic map and the order and orientation of the orthologous sequences in the syntenic bovine regions. Syntenies were also conserved at the in-scaffold level. The cM distances corresponded to 1.34 Mbp uniformly along the deer genome. Chromosomal rearrangements between deer and cattle were demonstrated. 2.8 × 106 SNPs, 365 × 103 indels and 19368 protein-coding genes were identified in CerEla1.0, along with positions for centromerons. CerEla1.0 demonstrates the utilization of dual references, i.e., when a target genome (here C. elaphus) already has a pre-established genetic map, and is combined with the well-established whole genome sequence of a closely related species (here Bos taurus). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that CerEla1.0 (NCBI, MKHE00000000) could serve for are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-684
Number of pages20
JournalMolecular Genetics and Genomics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2018


  • Bos taurus genome
  • Cattle genome
  • Cervus elaphus genome
  • De novo assembly
  • Deer genome
  • Next-generation sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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    Bana, N., Nyiri, A., Nagy, J., Frank, K., Nagy, T., Stéger, V., Schiller, M., Lakatos, P., Sugár, L., Horn, P., Barta, E., & Orosz, L. (2018). The red deer Cervus elaphus genome CerEla1.0: sequencing, annotating, genes, and chromosomes. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 293(3), 665-684.