Cardiovascular disease is the biggest challenge in terms of life expectancy in developed countries. Adenosine contributes to the adaptation of the heart to ischemia and hypoxia, because adenosine, in addition to its metabolite role in the nucleic acid metabolism, is the endogenous agonist of the ubiquitous adenosine receptor family. Adenosine receptor activation is beneficial in most cases, it improves the balance between energy supply and consumption, reduces injury caused by stressors and inhibits the unfavorable tissue remodeling. Pharmacological manipulation of cardioprotective effects evoked by adenosine is an important, although to date not sufficiently utilized endeavor that may have therapeutic and preventive implications in cardiovascular diseases. As the ligand binding site of adenosine receptors is accessible from the extracellular space, it is especially important to know the adenosine concentration of the interstitial fluid ([Ado]ISF). However, in the functioning heart, [Ado]ISF values range in an extremely wide interval, spanning from nano- to micromolar concentrations, as estimated by the commonly used methods. Our recently developed procedure, the receptorial responsiveness method (RRM), may resolve this problem in certain cases. RRM enables quantification of an acute increase in the concentration of a pharmacological agonist, uniquely in the microenvironment of the receptors of the given agonist. As a limitation, concentration of agonists with short half-life (just like adenosine) at their receptors can only be quantified with the equieffective concentration of a stable agonist exerting the same action. In a previous study using RRM, inhibition of the transmembrane nucleoside transport in the euthyroid guinea pig atrium produced an increase in [Ado]ISF that was equieffective with 18.8 ± 3 nM CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine, a stable, selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist). This finding is consistent with observations of others, i.e., in the normoxic heart, adenosine flow is directed into the cell interior, and thus transport blockade elevates the extracellular adenosine level. In turn, nucleoside transport inhibition in the hyperthyroid guinea pig atrium caused a rise in [Ado]ISF equieffective with 46.5 ± 13.7 nM CPA. In sum, our work team was the first to demonstrate that adenosine transport in the hyperthyroid atrium has the same direction but is more intense as/than that in the euthyroid one.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science