The Reactive Plasticity of Hippocampal Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in Animal Epilepsies

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the synaptic and metabolic actions of glutamate. These iGluRs are classified within the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type, kainate-type, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type functional receptor families. The iGluR assemblies are regulated by transcription, alternative splicing, and cytoplasmic post-translational modifications. The iGluR subunit proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, inserted into the synaptic membranes, and anchored at their action site by different scaffolding and interacting proteins. The functional properties of iGluRs depend on their subunit composition, the amino acid sequence of the protein domains, and the scaffolding proteins in the synaptic membranes. The iGluRs are removed from the membranes by enzymatic action and endocytosis. Hippocampal iGluRs are rearranged through the upregulation and downregulation of the subunits following deafferentation and epileptic seizures. The rearrangement of iGluRs and the alteration of their subunit composition transform neurons into "pathological" cells, determining the further plasticity or pathology of the hippocampal formation. In the present review, we summarize the expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits following deafferentation, repeated mild seizures, and status epilepticus. We compare our results to literature descriptions, and draw conclusions as to the reactive plasticity of iGluRs in the hippocampus.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 27 2019

Fingerprint

epilepsy
Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors
glutamates
plastic properties
Plasticity
animals
Epilepsy
Animals
Proteins
Membranes
Synaptic Membranes
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid
Kainic Acid
Propionic acid
seizures
proteins
aspartates
Pathology
Transcription
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • AMPA receptor
  • epilepsy
  • glutamate
  • hippocampus
  • kainate receptor
  • neuronal plasticity
  • NMDA receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "The Reactive Plasticity of Hippocampal Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in Animal Epilepsies",
abstract = "Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the synaptic and metabolic actions of glutamate. These iGluRs are classified within the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type, kainate-type, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type functional receptor families. The iGluR assemblies are regulated by transcription, alternative splicing, and cytoplasmic post-translational modifications. The iGluR subunit proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, inserted into the synaptic membranes, and anchored at their action site by different scaffolding and interacting proteins. The functional properties of iGluRs depend on their subunit composition, the amino acid sequence of the protein domains, and the scaffolding proteins in the synaptic membranes. The iGluRs are removed from the membranes by enzymatic action and endocytosis. Hippocampal iGluRs are rearranged through the upregulation and downregulation of the subunits following deafferentation and epileptic seizures. The rearrangement of iGluRs and the alteration of their subunit composition transform neurons into {"}pathological{"} cells, determining the further plasticity or pathology of the hippocampal formation. In the present review, we summarize the expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits following deafferentation, repeated mild seizures, and status epilepticus. We compare our results to literature descriptions, and draw conclusions as to the reactive plasticity of iGluRs in the hippocampus.",
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N2 - Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the synaptic and metabolic actions of glutamate. These iGluRs are classified within the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type, kainate-type, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type functional receptor families. The iGluR assemblies are regulated by transcription, alternative splicing, and cytoplasmic post-translational modifications. The iGluR subunit proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, inserted into the synaptic membranes, and anchored at their action site by different scaffolding and interacting proteins. The functional properties of iGluRs depend on their subunit composition, the amino acid sequence of the protein domains, and the scaffolding proteins in the synaptic membranes. The iGluRs are removed from the membranes by enzymatic action and endocytosis. Hippocampal iGluRs are rearranged through the upregulation and downregulation of the subunits following deafferentation and epileptic seizures. The rearrangement of iGluRs and the alteration of their subunit composition transform neurons into "pathological" cells, determining the further plasticity or pathology of the hippocampal formation. In the present review, we summarize the expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits following deafferentation, repeated mild seizures, and status epilepticus. We compare our results to literature descriptions, and draw conclusions as to the reactive plasticity of iGluRs in the hippocampus.

AB - Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the synaptic and metabolic actions of glutamate. These iGluRs are classified within the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type, kainate-type, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type functional receptor families. The iGluR assemblies are regulated by transcription, alternative splicing, and cytoplasmic post-translational modifications. The iGluR subunit proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, inserted into the synaptic membranes, and anchored at their action site by different scaffolding and interacting proteins. The functional properties of iGluRs depend on their subunit composition, the amino acid sequence of the protein domains, and the scaffolding proteins in the synaptic membranes. The iGluRs are removed from the membranes by enzymatic action and endocytosis. Hippocampal iGluRs are rearranged through the upregulation and downregulation of the subunits following deafferentation and epileptic seizures. The rearrangement of iGluRs and the alteration of their subunit composition transform neurons into "pathological" cells, determining the further plasticity or pathology of the hippocampal formation. In the present review, we summarize the expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits following deafferentation, repeated mild seizures, and status epilepticus. We compare our results to literature descriptions, and draw conclusions as to the reactive plasticity of iGluRs in the hippocampus.

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